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Open AccessArticle

Single-Dose Toxicity of Individual and Combined Sterigmatocystin and 5-Methoxysterigmatocistin in Rat Lungs

1
Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(11), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12110734
Received: 30 October 2020 / Revised: 19 November 2020 / Accepted: 20 November 2020 / Published: 23 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Exposure to Mycotoxins—Challenges and Ways Forward)
Sterigmatocystin (STC) and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin (5-M-STC) are mycotoxins produced by common damp indoor Aspergilli series Versicolores. Since both STC and 5-M-STC were found in the dust of indoor occupational and living areas, their occupants may be exposed to these mycotoxins, primarily by inhalation. Thus, STC and 5-M-STC were intratracheally instilled in male Wistar rats using doses (0.3 mg STC/kg of lung weight (l.w.); 3.6 mg 5-M-STC/kg l.w.; toxin combination 0.3 + 3.6 mg/kg l.w.) that corresponded to concentrations detected in the dust of damp indoor areas in order to explore cytotoxicity, vascular permeability, immunomodulation and genotoxicity. Single mycotoxins and their combinations insignificantly altered lactate-dehydrogenase activity, albumin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1α concentrations, as measured by ELISA in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid upon 24 h of treatment. In an alkaline comet assay, both mycotoxins provoked a similar intensity of DNA damage in rat lungs, while in a neutral comet assay, only 5-M-STC evoked significant DNA damage. Hence, naturally occurring concentrations of individual STC may induce DNA damage in rat lungs, in which single DNA strand breaks prevail, while 5-M-STC was more responsible for double-strand breaks. In both versions of the comet assay treatment with STC + 5-M-STC, less DNA damage intensity occurred compared to single mycotoxin treatment, suggesting an antagonistic genotoxic action. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aspergilli series Versicolores; sterigmatocystin; 5-methoxysterigmatocystin; intratarcheal instillation; genotoxicity; pro-inflammatory cytokines Aspergilli series Versicolores; sterigmatocystin; 5-methoxysterigmatocystin; intratarcheal instillation; genotoxicity; pro-inflammatory cytokines
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jakšić, D.; Ćurtović, I.; Kifer, D.; Rašić, D.; Kopjar, N.; Micek, V.; Peraica, M.; Klarić, M.Š. Single-Dose Toxicity of Individual and Combined Sterigmatocystin and 5-Methoxysterigmatocistin in Rat Lungs. Toxins 2020, 12, 734.

AMA Style

Jakšić D, Ćurtović I, Kifer D, Rašić D, Kopjar N, Micek V, Peraica M, Klarić MŠ. Single-Dose Toxicity of Individual and Combined Sterigmatocystin and 5-Methoxysterigmatocistin in Rat Lungs. Toxins. 2020; 12(11):734.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jakšić, Daniela; Ćurtović, Ida; Kifer, Domagoj; Rašić, Dubravka; Kopjar, Nevenka; Micek, Vedran; Peraica, Maja; Klarić, Maja Š. 2020. "Single-Dose Toxicity of Individual and Combined Sterigmatocystin and 5-Methoxysterigmatocistin in Rat Lungs" Toxins 12, no. 11: 734.

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