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Open AccessArticle

Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 by a Sustainable Enzymatic Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Pleurotus eryngii

Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council (CNR), Via G. Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari, Italy
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Toxins 2020, 12(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12010049 (registering DOI)
Received: 5 December 2019 / Revised: 9 January 2020 / Accepted: 12 January 2020 / Published: 14 January 2020
Ligninolytic enzymes from white-rot fungi, such as laccase (Lac) and Mn-peroxidase (MnP), are able to degrade aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the most harmful among the known mycotoxins. The high cost of purification of these enzymes has limited their implementation into practical technologies. Every year, tons of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) are produced as a by-product of edible mushroom cultivation, such as Pleurotus spp., and disposed at a cost for farmers. SMS may still bea source of ligninolytic enzymes useful for AFB1 degradation. The in vitro AFB1-degradative activity of an SMS crude extract (SMSE) was investigated. Results show that: (1) in SMSE, high Lac activity (4 U g−1 dry matter) and low MnP activity (0.4 U g−1 dry matter) were present; (2) after 1 d of incubation at 25 °C, the SMSE was able to degrade more than 50% of AFB1, whereas after 3 and 7 d of incubation, the percentage of degradation reached the values of 75% and 90%, respectively; (3) with increasing pH values, the degradation percentage increased, reaching 90% after 3 d at pH 8. Based on these results, SMS proved to be a suitable source of AFB1 degrading enzymes and the use of SMSE to detoxify AFB1 contaminated commodities appears conceivable. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pleurotus eryngi; king oyster mushroom; spent mushroom substrate; crude extract; aflatoxins; laccase; feed detoxification Pleurotus eryngi; king oyster mushroom; spent mushroom substrate; crude extract; aflatoxins; laccase; feed detoxification
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Branà, M.T.; Sergio, L.; Haidukowski, M.; Logrieco, A.F.; Altomare, C. Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 by a Sustainable Enzymatic Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Pleurotus eryngii. Toxins 2020, 12, 49.

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