Next Article in Journal
Detoxification of the Fumonisin Mycotoxins in Maize: An Enzymatic Approach
Next Article in Special Issue
New Insights into the Roles of Monocytes/Macrophages in Cardiovascular Calcification Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease
Previous Article in Journal
First Report of Microcystis Strains Producing MC-FR and -WR Toxins in Japan
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sclerostin as Regulatory Molecule in Vascular Media Calcification and the Bone–Vascular Axis
Open AccessReview

Modifying Phosphate Toxicity in Chronic Kidney Disease

Department of Nephrology and Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Toxins 2019, 11(9), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11090522
Received: 4 August 2019 / Revised: 29 August 2019 / Accepted: 5 September 2019 / Published: 9 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chronic Kidney Disease - Mineral Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD))
Phosphate toxicity is a well-established phenomenon, especially in chronic kidney disease (CKD), where hyperphosphatemia is a frequent occurrence when CKD is advanced. Many therapeutic efforts are targeted at phosphate, and comprise dietary intervention, modifying dialysis schemes, treating uncontrolled hyperparathyroidism and importantly, phosphate binder therapy. Despite all these interventions, hyperphosphatemia persists in many, and its pathological influence is ongoing. In nephrological care, a somewhat neglected aspect of treatment—when attempts fail to lower exposure to a toxin like phosphate—is to explore the possibility of “anti-dotes”. Indeed, quite a long list of factors modify, or are mediators of phosphate toxicity. Addressing these, especially when phosphate itself cannot be sufficiently controlled, may provide additional protection. In this narrative overview, several factors are discussed that may qualify as either such a modifier or mediator, that can be influenced by other means than simply lowering phosphate exposure. A wider scope when targeting phosphate-induced comorbidity in CKD, in particular cardiovascular disease, may alleviate the burden of disease that is the consequence of this potentially toxic mineral in CKD. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic kidney disease; CKD-MBD; phosphate chronic kidney disease; CKD-MBD; phosphate
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Vervloet, M. Modifying Phosphate Toxicity in Chronic Kidney Disease. Toxins 2019, 11, 522.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop