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Open AccessArticle

Development of an UPLC-MS/MS Method for the Analysis of Mycotoxins in Rumen Fluid with and without Maize Silage Emphasizes the Importance of Using Matrix-Matched Calibration

1
Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
2
Department of Animal Sciences and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
3
Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
4
Chair of Analytical Food Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Maximus-von-Imhof-Forum 2, 85354 Freising, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Shared last author.
Toxins 2019, 11(9), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11090519 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 22 August 2019 / Accepted: 5 September 2019 / Published: 7 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
Ruminants are less susceptible to the effects of mycotoxins than monogastric animals as their rumen microbiota are claimed to degrade and/or deactivate at least some of these toxic compounds. However, the mycotoxin degradation is not well-known yet. For this, a sensitive, specific, and accurate analytical method is needed to determine mycotoxins in the rumen fluid. This study aims to develop and thoroughly validate an ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantitative determination in the rumen fluid of some of the most relevant mycotoxins found in maize silage in Western Europe: deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), zearalenone (ZEN), mycophenolic acid (MPA), roquefortine C (ROQ-C) and enniatin B (ENN B), as well as their metabolites deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1), α-zearalenol (α-ZEL), β-zearalenol (β-ZEL), zearalanone (ZAN), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL) and β-zearalanol (β-ZAL). As feed is often present in the rumen fluid samples, the potential interaction of feed particles with the mycotoxin extraction and analysis was investigated. Extraction recovery and matrix effects were determined in the rumen fluid with and without maize silage. Differences in those parameters between rumen fluid alone and rumen fluid with maize silage highlight the importance of using matrix-matched calibration curves for the quantification of mycotoxins in rumen fluid samples. A cross-validation of the method with rumen fluid and maize silage demonstrates that this analytical method can be applied in research on rumen fluid samples to investigate the degradation of the reported mycotoxins by rumen microbiota if matrix-matched calibration is performed. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; UPLC-MS/MS; rumen fluid; maize silage; matrix-matched mycotoxins; UPLC-MS/MS; rumen fluid; maize silage; matrix-matched
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Debevere, S.; De Baere, S.; Haesaert, G.; Rychlik, M.; Fievez, V.; Croubels, S. Development of an UPLC-MS/MS Method for the Analysis of Mycotoxins in Rumen Fluid with and without Maize Silage Emphasizes the Importance of Using Matrix-Matched Calibration. Toxins 2019, 11, 519.

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