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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Biomonitoring of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Human Volunteers: Renal Excretion Profiles

National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Department of Food Safety, NL-3721 Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Laboratory of Food Analysis, Department of Bioanalysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium
National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Department of Statistics, Informatics and Mathematical Modelling, NL-3721 Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(8), 466;
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 2 August 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Biomarkers of Exposure)
PDF [1711 KB, uploaded 8 August 2019]


Biomarkers for the determination of the dietary exposure to deoxynivalenol (DON) have been proposed in the past but so far no quantification of their use in humans has been carried out. Following a human intervention study with two mycotoxins, namely DON and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON3G), the renal excretion of these compounds, including their phase II metabolites, was analysed. The purpose was to develop biokinetic models that can be used to determine: (1) the preferred (set of) urinary biomarker(s), (2) the preferred urinary collection period, and (3) a method to estimate the dietary exposure to these mycotoxins. Twenty adult volunteers were restricted in consuming cereals and cereal-based foods for 4 days. At day 3, a single dose of 1 µg/kg body weight of DON or DON3G was orally administered to 16 volunteers; 4 volunteers served as control. All individual urine discharges were collected during 24 h after administration. The metabolism and renal excretion could be described by a biokinetic model using three physiological compartments (gastrointestinal tract, liver, and kidneys). Kinetic analysis revealed a complete recovery of the renal excretion of total DON (mainly DON and its glucuronides) within 24 h after administration of DON or DON3G. The so-called ‘reverse dosimetry’ factor was used to determine the preferred (set of) biomarker(s) and to estimate the dietary intake of the parent compounds in the future. The fact that DON3G was absorbed and mainly excreted as DON and its glucuronides confirms that DON3G (as well as other modified forms) should be taken into account in the exposure and risk assessment of this group of mycotoxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: modified deoxynivalenol; DON; biomonitoring; renal excretion; kinetic modelling modified deoxynivalenol; DON; biomonitoring; renal excretion; kinetic modelling

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Mengelers, M.; Zeilmaker, M.; Vidal, A.; De Boevre, M.; De Saeger, S.; Hoogenveen, R. Biomonitoring of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Human Volunteers: Renal Excretion Profiles. Toxins 2019, 11, 466.

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