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Open AccessArticle

Evolution of Asian Corn Borer Resistance to Bt Toxins Used Singly or in Pairs

The State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK
Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(8), 461;
Received: 1 July 2019 / Revised: 24 July 2019 / Accepted: 1 August 2019 / Published: 6 August 2019
PDF [732 KB, uploaded 6 August 2019]
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Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have revolutionized pest control, but the benefits of this approach have been reduced by the evolution of resistance in pests. The widely adopted ’pyramid strategy’ for delaying resistance entails transgenic crops producing two or more distinct toxins that kill the same pest. The limited experimental evidence supporting this strategy comes primarily from a model system under ideal conditions. Here we tested the pyramid strategy under nearly worst-case conditions, including some cross-resistance between the toxins in the pyramid. In a laboratory selection experiment with an artificial diet, we used Bt toxins Cry1Ab, Cry1F, and Cry1Ie singly or in pairs against Ostrinia furnacalis, one of the most destructive pests of corn in Asia. Under the conditions evaluated, pairs of toxins did not consistently delay the evolution of resistance relative to single toxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis; cry toxin; pyramid strategy; resistance; Ostrinia furnacalis Bacillus thuringiensis; cry toxin; pyramid strategy; resistance; Ostrinia furnacalis

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Wang, Y.; Quan, Y.; Yang, J.; Shu, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, J.; Gatehouse, A.M.R.; Tabashnik, B.E.; He, K. Evolution of Asian Corn Borer Resistance to Bt Toxins Used Singly or in Pairs. Toxins 2019, 11, 461.

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