Next Article in Journal
LC-HRMS Screening and Identification of Novel Peptide Markers of Ricin Based on Multiple Protease Digestion Strategies
Next Article in Special Issue
Prodigiosin Promotes Nrf2 Activation to Inhibit Oxidative Stress Induced by Microcystin-LR in HepG2 Cells
Previous Article in Journal
A Short Peptide Derived from the ZorO Toxin Functions as an Effective Antimicrobial
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Efficiency of Microstrainers Filtration in the Process of Removing Phytoplankton with Special Consideration of Cyanobacteria
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

LC–MS/MS Analysis of the Emerging Toxin Pinnatoxin-G and High Levels of Esterified OA Group Toxins in Galician Commercial Mussels

Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(7), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11070394
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Toxicological Challenges of Aquatic Toxins)
  |  
PDF [1891 KB, uploaded 9 July 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

The occurrence of marine harmful algae is increasing worldwide and, therefore, the accumulation of lipophilic marine toxins from harmful phytoplankton represents a food safety threat in the shellfish industry. Galicia, which is a commercially important EU producer of edible bivalve mollusk have been subjected to recurring cases of mussel farm closures, in the last decades. This work aimed to study the toxic profile of commercial mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in order to establish a potential risk when ingested. For this, a total of 41 samples of mussels farmed in 3 Rías (Ares-Sada, Arousa, and Pontevedra) and purchased in 5 local markets were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Chromatograms showed the presence of okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2), azaspiracid-2 (AZA-2), and the emerging toxins 13-desmethyl spirolide C (SPX-13), and pinnatoxin-G (PnTX-G). Quantification of each toxin was determined using their own standard calibration in the range 0.1%–50 ng/mL (R2 > 0.99) and by considering the toxin recovery (62–110%) and the matrix correction (33–211%). Data showed that OA and DTX-2 (especially in the form of esters) are the main risk in Galician mollusks, which was detected in 38 samples (93%) and 3 of them exceeded the legal limit (160 µg/kg), followed by SPX-13 that was detected in 19 samples (46%) in quantities of up to 28.9 µg/kg. Analysis from PTX-2, AZA-2, and PnTX-G showed smaller amounts. Fifteen samples (37%) were positive for PTX-2 (0.7–2.9 µg/kg), 12 samples (29%) for AZA-2 (0.1–1.8 µg/kg), and PnTX-G was detected in 5 mussel samples (12%) (0.4 µg/kg–0.9 µg/kg). This is the first time Galician mollusk was contaminated with PnTX-G. Despite results indicating that this toxin was not a potential risk through the mussel ingestion, it should be considered in the shellfish safety monitoring programs through the LC–MS/MS methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: lipophilic marine toxin levels; Galician mussels; liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS); new emerging toxins lipophilic marine toxin levels; Galician mussels; liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS); new emerging toxins
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Otero, P.; Miguéns, N.; Rodríguez, I.; Botana, L.M. LC–MS/MS Analysis of the Emerging Toxin Pinnatoxin-G and High Levels of Esterified OA Group Toxins in Galician Commercial Mussels. Toxins 2019, 11, 394.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top