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Deoxynivalenol in the Diet Impairs Bone Mineralization in Broiler Chickens

1
Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria
2
Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Agricultural University of Tirana, Kodër Kamëz, SH1, 1000 Tirana, Albania
3
Institute of Meat Hygiene, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060352
Received: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Infestations in Humans, Animals, Crops)
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Abstract

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant and important trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species. In chickens, DON intake causes feed refusal, impairs performance, gut barrier function, and immunity, and raises oxidative stress. To determine the effect of DON on bone mineralization and serum calcium and phosphorus, 80 newly-hatched chickens were fed 4 diets with 0, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg DON/kg feed in this pilot study. In week 5, chickens were euthanized, femur and tibiotarsus bones were separated from the meat, and after incineration ash composition, as well as serum calcium and phosphorus, were determined using clinical biochemistry. Dietary DON reduced chicken dry matter, calcium, and phosphorus intake, and subsequently body and leg weight. DON affected bone density and composition of the tibiotarsus more drastically than of the femur. However, lower mineral intake did not solely explain our observations of the quadratically lower tibiotarsus density and ash content, as well as linearly decreased Ca content in the femur and tibiotarsus with increasing DON levels. Linearly decreasing serum phosphorus concentrations with increasing DON levels further supported impaired mineral homeostasis due to DON. In conclusion, already low dietary DON contamination of 2.5 mg/kg feed can compromise bone mineralization in chickens. View Full-Text
Keywords: broiler chicken; deoxynivalenol; bone mineralization; calcium; phosphorus broiler chicken; deoxynivalenol; bone mineralization; calcium; phosphorus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Keçi, M.; Lucke, A.; Paulsen, P.; Zebeli, Q.; Böhm, J.; Metzler-Zebeli, B.U. Deoxynivalenol in the Diet Impairs Bone Mineralization in Broiler Chickens. Toxins 2019, 11, 352.

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