Next Article in Journal
From Snake Venom’s Disintegrins and C-Type Lectins to Anti-Platelet Drugs
Next Article in Special Issue
Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity and Disturbance of Cell Cycle in HepG2 Cells Exposed to OTA and BEA: Single and Combined Actions
Previous Article in Journal
Degrading Ochratoxin A and Zearalenone Mycotoxins Using a Multifunctional Recombinant Enzyme
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comparison of Apoptosis and Autophagy in Human Chondrocytes Induced by the T-2 and HT-2 Toxins
Open AccessReview

Tremorgenic Mycotoxins: Structure Diversity and Biological Activity

1
Agriculture Victoria, AgriBio, Centre for AgriBioscience, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia
2
School of Applied Systems Biology, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050302
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicological Effects of Mycotoxin on Target Cells)
Indole-diterpenes are an important class of chemical compounds which can be unique to different fungal species. The highly complex lolitrem compounds are confined to Epichloë species, whilst penitrem production is confined to Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. These fungal species are often present in association with pasture grasses, and the indole-diterpenes produced may cause toxicity in grazing animals. In this review, we highlight the unique structural variations of indole-diterpenes that are characterised into subgroups, including paspaline, paxilline, shearinines, paspalitrems, terpendoles, penitrems, lolitrems, janthitrems, and sulpinines. A detailed description of the unique biological activities has been documented where even structurally related compounds have displayed unique biological activities. Indole-diterpene production has been reported in two classes of ascomycete fungi, namely Eurotiomycetes (e.g., Aspergillus and Penicillium) and Sordariomycetes (e.g., Claviceps and Epichloë). These compounds all have a common structural core comprised of a cyclic diterpene skeleton derived from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) and an indole moiety derived from tryptophan. Structure diversity is generated from the enzymatic conversion of different sites on the basic indole-diterpene structure. This review highlights the wide-ranging biological versatility presented by the indole-diterpene group of compounds and their role in an agricultural and pharmaceutical setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; endophyte; fungi; neurotoxin; lolitrems mycotoxins; endophyte; fungi; neurotoxin; lolitrems
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Reddy, P.; Guthridge, K.; Vassiliadis, S.; Hemsworth, J.; Hettiarachchige, I.; Spangenberg, G.; Rochfort, S. Tremorgenic Mycotoxins: Structure Diversity and Biological Activity. Toxins 2019, 11, 302.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop