Next Article in Journal
Study on the Growth and Enterotoxin Production by Staphylococcus aureus in Canned Meat before Retorting
Next Article in Special Issue
Degrading Ochratoxin A and Zearalenone Mycotoxins Using a Multifunctional Recombinant Enzyme
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Different Carbon Sources on Fumonisin Production and FUM Gene Expression by Fusarium proliferatum
Previous Article in Special Issue
Development of an Anti-Idiotypic VHH Antibody and Toxin-Free Enzyme Immunoassay for Ochratoxin A in Cereals
Open AccessReview

Prevalent Mycotoxins in Animal Feed: Occurrence and Analytical Methods

LAQV-REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050290
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Infestations in Humans, Animals, Crops)
Today, we have been witnessing a steady tendency in the increase of global demand for maize, wheat, soybeans, and their products due to the steady growth and strengthening of the livestock industry. Thus, animal feed safety has gradually become more important, with mycotoxins representing one of the most significant hazards. Mycotoxins comprise different classes of secondary metabolites of molds. With regard to animal feed, aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, and zearalenone are the more prevalent ones. In this review, several constraints posed by these contaminants at economical and commercial levels will be discussed, along with the legislation established in the European Union to restrict mycotoxins levels in animal feed. In addition, the occurrence of legislated mycotoxins in raw materials and their by-products for the feeds of interest, as well as in the feeds, will be reviewed. Finally, an overview of the different sample pretreatment and detection techniques reported for mycotoxin analysis will be presented, the main weaknesses of current methods will be highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; feed; fungi; occurrence; analytical methods; contaminants mycotoxins; feed; fungi; occurrence; analytical methods; contaminants
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Santos Pereira, C.; C. Cunha, S.; Fernandes, J.O. Prevalent Mycotoxins in Animal Feed: Occurrence and Analytical Methods. Toxins 2019, 11, 290.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop