Next Article in Journal
Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins through Polish Beer Consumption
Next Article in Special Issue
Toxin–Antitoxin Systems in Bacillus subtilis
Previous Article in Journal
Analysis of Toxigenic Fusarium Species Associated with Wheat Grain from Three Regions of Russia: Volga, Ural, and West Siberia
Previous Article in Special Issue
Survey of Toxin–Antitoxin Systems in Erwinia amylovora Reveals Insights into Diversity and Functional Specificity
Open AccessReview

Type I Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Clostridia

Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell (I2BC), CEA, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX, France
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 253;
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 2 May 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems)
Type I toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are abundant in both bacterial plasmids and chromosomes and usually encode a small hydrophobic toxic protein and an antisense RNA acting as an antitoxin. The RNA antitoxin neutralizes toxin mRNA by inhibiting its translation and/or promoting its degradation. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the type I TA modules identified in Clostridia species focusing on the recent findings in the human pathogen Clostridium difficile. More than ten functional type I TA modules have been identified in the genome of this emerging enteropathogen that could potentially contribute to its fitness and success inside the host. Despite the absence of sequence homology, the comparison of these newly identified type I TA modules with previously studied systems in other Gram-positive bacteria, i.e., Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, revealed some important common traits. These include the conservation of characteristic sequence features for small hydrophobic toxic proteins, the localization of several type I TA within prophage or prophage-like regions and strong connections with stress response. Potential functions in the stabilization of genome regions, adaptations to stress conditions and interactions with CRISPR-Cas defence system, as well as promising applications of TA for genome-editing and antimicrobial developments are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: toxin-antitoxin systems; type I; RNA antitoxins; Clostridium difficile; prophages toxin-antitoxin systems; type I; RNA antitoxins; Clostridium difficile; prophages
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Soutourina, O. Type I Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Clostridia. Toxins 2019, 11, 253.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop