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Toxins 2019, 11(4), 191;

First Characterization of The Venom from Apis mellifera syriaca, A Honeybee from The Middle East Region

Laboratory of Applied Biotechnology (LBA3B), Azm Center for Research in Biotechnology and its Applications, EDST, Lebanese University, Tripoli 1300, Lebanon
Faculty of Sciences 3, Lebanese University, Michel Slayman Tripoli Campus, Ras Maska 1352, Lebanon
Mitochondrial and Cardiovascular Pathophysiology – MITOVASC, Team 2, Cardiovascular Mechanotransduction, UMR CNRS 6015, INSERM U1083, Angers University, 49045 Angers, France
Faculty of Agriculture & Veterinary Sciences, Lebanese University, Dekwaneh, Beirut 2832, Lebanon
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 30 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Venom and Toxin as Targeted Therapy)
PDF [2169 KB, uploaded 30 March 2019]


Bee venom is a mixture of several components with proven therapeutic benefits, among which are anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and various cardiovascular conditions. In this work, we analyzed for the first time the proteomic content and biological properties of the crude venom from Apis mellifera syriaca, a honeybee from the Middle East region. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we evidence the venom contains phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, mast cell-degranulating peptide, adolapin, apamin, and melittin. The latter was purified by solid phase extraction method (SPE) and tested in parallel with crude venom for biological activities. Precisely, crude venom—but not melittin—exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Alongside, hemolytic activity was observed in human blood subjected to the venom at high doses. A. mellifera syriaca venom displayed antioxidant activities, and not surprisingly, PLA2 catalytic activity. Eventually, the venom proved to exert antiproliferative effects against MCF-7 and 3T3 cancer cells lines. This first report of a new bee venom opens new avenues for therapeutic uses of bee venoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: Apis mellifera syriaca; bee venom; melittin; LC-ESI-MS; solid phase extraction; in vitro effects Apis mellifera syriaca; bee venom; melittin; LC-ESI-MS; solid phase extraction; in vitro effects

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Frangieh, J.; Salma, Y.; Haddad, K.; Mattei, C.; Legros, C.; Fajloun, Z.; El Obeid, D. First Characterization of The Venom from Apis mellifera syriaca, A Honeybee from The Middle East Region. Toxins 2019, 11, 191.

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