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Open AccessArticle

Granulovirus GP37 Facilitated ODVs Cross Insect Peritrophic Membranes and Fuse with Epithelia

1
College of Plant Protection, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China
2
Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
X.L. and W.F. contributed equally to this work.
Toxins 2019, 11(3), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11030145
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 23 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
The Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) GP37 has synergistic effects on the infectivity of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs), however, the mechanism employed is unclear. In this study, in vitro and in vivo binding assays indicated that GP37 efficiently bound to the midgut peritrophic membrane (PM) of Spodoptera exigua larvae. Treatment with GP37 led to the damage of the PM’s compacted structure and the generation of the PM perforations, and the enhancement of the PM’s permeability. qPCR results further demonstrated that GP37 increased the ability of occlusion-derived virions (ODV) to cross the PM. R18-labeling experiments exhibited that GP37 also promoted the fusion of ODVs and insect midgut epithelia. Altogether, our present results revealed that the synergistic mechanism of GP37 to the infectivity of NPV might involve two parts. GP37 damaged the integrity of the PM after binding, which enhanced the PM’s permeability and increased the ability of ODVs to cross the PM, finally facilitating the ODVs reaching the midgut. In addition, GP37 promoted the fusion of ODVs and insect midgut epithelia. Our data expand the understanding of the mechanism used by baculovirus synergistic factors and provide a foundation for the development of high-efficiency baculoviral insecticides. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cydia pomonella granulovirus; GP37; peritrophic membrane; brush-border membrane vesicle; synergistic mechanism Cydia pomonella granulovirus; GP37; peritrophic membrane; brush-border membrane vesicle; synergistic mechanism
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Liu, X.; Fang, W.; Fan, R.; Zhang, L.; Lei, C.; Zhang, J.; Nian, W.; Dou, T.; An, S.; Zhou, L.; Sun, X. Granulovirus GP37 Facilitated ODVs Cross Insect Peritrophic Membranes and Fuse with Epithelia. Toxins 2019, 11, 145.

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