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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview

Mycotoxins and Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Pollen: Review

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Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia
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Preservation and Fermentation, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia
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Institute for Animal Husbandry, Autoput 16, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia
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Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski Trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade, Serbia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020064
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety and Natural Toxins)
Due to its divergent chemical composition and good nutritional properties, pollen is not only important as a potential food supplement but also as a good substrate for the development of different microorganisms. Among such microorganisms, toxigenic fungi are extremely dangerous as they can synthesize mycotoxins as a part of their metabolic pathways. Furthermore, favorable conditions that enable the synthesis of mycotoxins (adequate temperature, relative humidity, pH, and aw values) are found frequently during pollen collection and/or production process. Internationally, several different mycotoxins have been identified in pollen samples, with a noted predominance of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and T-2 toxin. Mycotoxins are, generally speaking, extremely harmful for humans and other mammals. Current EU legislation contains guidelines on the permissible content of this group of compounds, but without information pertaining to the content of mycotoxins in pollen. Currently only aflatoxins have been researched and discussed in the literature in regard to proposed limits. Therefore, the aim of this review is to give information about the presence of different mycotoxins in pollen samples collected all around the world, to propose possible aflatoxin contamination pathways, and to emphasize the importance of a regular mycotoxicological analysis of pollen. Furthermore, a suggestion is made regarding the legal regulation of pollen as a food supplement and the proposed tolerable limits for other mycotoxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: pollen; fungi; mycotoxins; aflatoxins; ochratoxins; fumonisins; T-2 toxin; zearalenone; deoxynivalenol pollen; fungi; mycotoxins; aflatoxins; ochratoxins; fumonisins; T-2 toxin; zearalenone; deoxynivalenol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kostić, A.Ž.; Milinčić, D.D.; Petrović, T.S.; Krnjaja, V.S.; Stanojević, S.P.; Barać, M.B.; Tešić, Ž.L..; Pešić, M.B. Mycotoxins and Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Pollen: Review. Toxins 2019, 11, 64. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020064

AMA Style

Kostić AŽ, Milinčić DD, Petrović TS, Krnjaja VS, Stanojević SP, Barać MB, Tešić ŽL, Pešić MB. Mycotoxins and Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Pollen: Review. Toxins. 2019; 11(2):64. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020064

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kostić, Aleksandar Ž.; Milinčić, Danijel D.; Petrović, Tanja S.; Krnjaja, Vesna S.; Stanojević, Sladjana P.; Barać, Miroljub B.; Tešić, Živoslav L..; Pešić, Mirjana B. 2019. "Mycotoxins and Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Pollen: Review" Toxins 11, no. 2: 64. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020064

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