Next Article in Journal
Assessment of Toxigenic Fusarium Species and Their Mycotoxins in Brewing Barley Grains
Next Article in Special Issue
Mycotoxins and Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Pollen: Review
Previous Article in Journal
Toxin ζ Reduces the ATP and Modulates the Uridine Diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine Pool
Previous Article in Special Issue
Detection of Shiga Toxin 2 Produced by Escherichia coli in Foods Using a Novel AlphaLISA
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2019, 11(1), 30;

Multi-(myco)toxins in Malting and Brewing By-Products

Faculty of Food Technology Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, F. Kuhača 20, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
Department of Food Technology, University North, University Center Koprivnica, Trg dr. Žarka Dolinara 1, 48000 Koprivnica, Croatia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety and Natural Toxins)
PDF [1585 KB, uploaded 9 January 2019]


Fungi, yeasts, and bacteria are common microorganisms on cereals used in malting and brewing industries. These microorganisms are mostly associated with the safety and quality of malt and beer, but also with the health safety of by-products used in animal nutrition. The real problem is their harmful metabolites—toxins that, due to their thermostable properties, can easily be transferred to malting and brewing by-products. Besides fungal metabolites, other toxins originating from plants can be harmful to animal health. Precise and accurate analytical techniques broadened the spectrum of known toxins originating from microorganisms and plants that can pose a threat to animal health. Multi-(myco)toxin analyses are advanced and useful tools for the assessment of product safety, and legislation should follow up and make some important changes to regulate yet unregulated, but highly occurring, microbial and plant toxins in malting and brewing by-products used for animal feed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Multi-toxins; mycotoxins; malting and brewing by-products; animal feed Multi-toxins; mycotoxins; malting and brewing by-products; animal feed

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mastanjević, K.; Lukinac, J.; Jukić, M.; Šarkanj, B.; Krstanović, V.; Mastanjević, K. Multi-(myco)toxins in Malting and Brewing By-Products. Toxins 2019, 11, 30.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top