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Toxins 2019, 11(2), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020132

Modulation of Mucin (MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B) mRNA Expression and Protein Production and Secretion in Caco-2/HT29-MTX Co-Cultures Following Exposure to Individual and Combined Aflatoxin M1 and Ochratoxin A

1,2,3,4,†, 1,2,3,4,†, 1,2,3,4,†, 1,2,3,4, 1,2,3,4 and 1,2,3,4,*
1
Key Laboratory of Quality & Safety Control for Milk and Dairy Products of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
2
Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Dairy Products of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
3
Milk and Milk Products Inspection Center of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
4
State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling for Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA), which widely coexist in milk, may pose a serious threat to human health. Mucin is a major component of the intestinal mucus layer, which plays an important role in maintaining intestinal mucosal homeostasis. However, the effect of mycotoxins AFM1 and OTA on intestinal mucin production is still not clear. This study aimed to investigate individual and interactive effects of mycotoxins AFM1 and OTA on the intestinal barrier and the mRNA expression of intestinal mucin (MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B) and on protein production in Caco-2/HT29-MTX cultures after 48 h of exposure. Our results show that individual mycotoxins and their mixtures significantly reduced intestinal cell viability and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) values, as well as significantly altered intestinal mucin mRNA expression and protein abundance. Moreover, OTA showed toxicity similar to AFM1 in cell viability and TEER value at the same concentration. When the two mycotoxins acted in combination, the synergistic effects observed in the assessment of cell viability and protein abundance in all mono- and co-cultures. In general, this study provides evidence that AFM1 and OTA can damage the intestine, and it contributes to optimized maximum permissible limits of mycotoxins in milk. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin M1; ochratoxin A; Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-cultures; mucin; interactive effects aflatoxin M1; ochratoxin A; Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-cultures; mucin; interactive effects
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Huang, X.; Gao, Y.; Li, S.; Wu, C.; Wang, J.; Zheng, N. Modulation of Mucin (MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B) mRNA Expression and Protein Production and Secretion in Caco-2/HT29-MTX Co-Cultures Following Exposure to Individual and Combined Aflatoxin M1 and Ochratoxin A. Toxins 2019, 11, 132.

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