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Open AccessReview

The Toxins of Nemertean Worms

Pharmacognosy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Biomedical Centre, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala, Sweden
Swedish Species Information Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden
Linnaeus University Centre for Biomaterials Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Linnaeus University, 39231 Kalmar, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(2), 120;
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Toxicological Challenges of Aquatic Toxins)
Most ribbon worms (phylum: Nemertea) are found in marine environments, where they act as predators and scavengers. They are characterized by an eversible proboscis that is used to hunt for prey and thick mucus covering their skin. Both proboscis and epidermal mucus mediate toxicity to predators and preys. Research into the chemical nature of the substances that render toxicity has not been extensive, but it has nevertheless led to the identification of several compounds of potential medicinal use or for application in biotechnology. This review provides a complete account of the current status of research into nemertean toxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: Anabaseine; cytotoxin; DMXBA; nemertea; nemertide; parborlysin; ribbon worm; tetrodotoxin Anabaseine; cytotoxin; DMXBA; nemertea; nemertide; parborlysin; ribbon worm; tetrodotoxin
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Göransson, U.; Jacobsson, E.; Strand, M.; Andersson, H.S. The Toxins of Nemertean Worms. Toxins 2019, 11, 120.

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