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Toxins 2019, 11(2), 100;

Co-Occurrence of Beauvericin and Enniatins in Edible Vegetable Oil Samples, China

NHC Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 9 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
PDF [757 KB, uploaded 11 February 2019]


A total of 470 edible vegetable oil samples including peanut, soybean, rapeseed, sesame seed, corn, blend, and others collected from eight provinces of China were analyzed for the concentrations of beauvericin (BEA), enniatin A (ENA), A1 (ENA1), B (ENB), and B1 (ENB1) by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MS/MS). Concentrations of BEA, ENB, and ENB1 (average = 5.59 μg/kg, 5.16 μg/kg, and 4.61 μg/kg) in all positive samples were higher than those for ENA and ENA1 (average = 0.85 μg/kg and 1.88 μg/kg). Frequencies of BEA and ENNs in all analyzed samples were all higher than 50% with the exception of ENA1 (36.6%, 172/470). Levels of BEA and ENNs in all analyzed samples varied based on their sample types and geographical distributions (Kruskal–Wallis test, p < 0.05). The soybean and peanut oil samples were found to be more easily contaminated by BEA and ENNs than other oil samples. Concentrations of BEA and ENNs in samples obtained from Heilongjiang, Shandong and Guizhou were higher than those found in samples from other provinces. Besides, frequencies of mycotoxin co-contaminations were high and their co-contamination types also varied by oil types. BEA-ENA-ENA1-ENB-ENB1 was the most commonly found toxin combination type, almost in one third of the analyzed samples (30%, 141/470). Overall, these results indicate that co-occurrence of BEA and ENNs in analyzed Chinese edible vegetable oil samples is highly common, and it is vital to monitor them, both simultaneously and on a widespread level.
Keywords: edible vegetable oil; beauvericin; enniatins; China; UPLC/ESI-MS/MS edible vegetable oil; beauvericin; enniatins; China; UPLC/ESI-MS/MS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Han, X.; Xu, W.; Zhang, J.; Xu, J.; Li, F. Co-Occurrence of Beauvericin and Enniatins in Edible Vegetable Oil Samples, China. Toxins 2019, 11, 100.

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