The aim of this study was to investigate the use of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections and their efficacy on gross motor function for lower limb spasticity in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). This retrospective study included 919 injection occasions from 591 children with CP who received a lower limb BoNT-A injection between 2006 and 2016. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88), the Modified Ashworth Scale, and the Modified Tardieu Scale were administered before and after injections. Injections were predominantly administered to children under the age of 6 years. The most common muscle injection site was the calf muscle for dynamic foot deformity. The second most commonly injected muscle was the hip adductor among 2–3 year olds and the hamstring muscle among 4–6 year olds. Distal injections were predominantly administered to high-functioning children, whereas proximal injections were typically administered to low-functioning children. Multilevel injections were mostly administered to midfunctioning children. GMFM-88 scores significantly increased post-injection for both high- and low-functioning groups. Younger age at injection and distal injection type were associated with larger improvements on the GMFM-88 at both short- and midterm follow-up. The target muscles for injection varied depending on gross motor functioning and age. Younger age at injection and distal injection type were significantly related with greater gain in gross motor function.
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