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Open AccessArticle

Uptake, Growth, and Pigment Changes in Lemna minor L. Exposed to Environmental Concentrations of Cylindrospermopsin

1
Technische Universität Berlin, Institute of Ecology, Ernst-Reuter-Platz 1, 10587 Berlin, Germany
2
University of Helsinki, Ecosystems and Environmental Research Programme, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Niemenkatu 73, 15140 Lahti, Finland
3
Korea Institute of Science and Technology Europe (KIST), Joint Laboratory of Applied Ecotoxicology, Campus 7.1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany
4
University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science (HELSUS), Fabianinkatu 33, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110650
Received: 30 September 2019 / Revised: 21 October 2019 / Accepted: 5 November 2019 / Published: 7 November 2019
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN)-producing cyanobacterial blooms such as Raphidiopsis, Aphanizomenon, Anabaena, Umezakia, and Lyngbya spp. are occurring more commonly and frequently worldwide. CYN is an environmentally stable extracellular toxin, which inhibits protein synthesis, and, therefore, can potentially affect a wide variety of aquatic biota. Submerged and floating macrophytes, as primary producers in oligotrophic habitats, are at risk of exposure and information on the effects of CYN exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations is limited. In the present study, we investigated CYN uptake in the floating macrophyte Lemna minor with exposure to reported environmental concentrations. The effects were evaluated in terms of bioaccumulation, relative plant growth, and number of fronds per day. Variations in the concentrations and ratios of the chlorophylls as stress markers and carotenoids as markers of oxidative stress defense were measured. With exposure to 25 μg/L, L. minor could remove 43% of CYN within 24 h but CYN was not bioaccumulated. Generally, the pigment concentrations were elevated with exposure to 0.025, 0.25, and 2.5 μg/L CYN after 24 h, but normalized quickly thereafter. Changes in relative plant growth were observed with exposure to 0.25 and 2.5 μg/L CYN. Adverse effects were seen with these environmentally realistic concentrations within 24 h; however, L. minor successfully recovered within the next 48–96 h.
Keywords: cylindrospermopsin; uptake; pigment contents; relative plant growth; Lemna minor cylindrospermopsin; uptake; pigment contents; relative plant growth; Lemna minor
MDPI and ACS Style

Flores-Rojas, N.C.; Esterhuizen-Londt, M.; Pflugmacher, S. Uptake, Growth, and Pigment Changes in Lemna minor L. Exposed to Environmental Concentrations of Cylindrospermopsin. Toxins 2019, 11, 650.

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