(1) Background. Snake venom phosphodiesterases (SVPDEs) are among the least studied venom enzymes. In envenomation, they display various pathological effects, including induction of hypotension, inhibition of platelet aggregation, edema, and paralysis. Until now, there have been no 3D structural studies of these enzymes, thereby preventing structure–function analysis. To enable such investigations, the present work describes the model-based structural and functional characterization of a phosphodiesterase from Crotalus adamanteus
venom, named PDE_Ca.
(2) Methods. The PDE_Ca
structure model was produced and validated using various software (model building: I-TESSER, MODELLER 9v19, Swiss-Model, and validation tools: PROCHECK, ERRAT, Molecular Dynamic Simulation, and Verif3D). (3) Results. The proposed model of the enzyme indicates that the 3D structure of PDE_Ca
comprises four domains, a somatomedin B domain, a somatomedin B-like domain, an ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase domain, and a DNA/RNA non-specific domain. Sequence and structural analyses suggest that differences in length and composition among homologous snake venom sequences may account for their differences in substrate specificity. Other properties that may influence substrate specificity are the average volume and depth of the active site cavity. (4) Conclusion. Sequence comparisons indicate that SVPDEs exhibit high sequence identity but comparatively low identity with mammalian and bacterial PDEs.
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