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Open AccessArticle

Analysis of the Use of Cylindrospermopsin and/or Microcystin-Contaminated Water in the Growth, Mineral Content, and Contamination of Spinacia oleracea and Lactuca sativa

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Area of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidad de Sevilla, Profesor García González n°2, 41012 Seville, Spain
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CIIMAR/CIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos, s/n, 4450-208 Porto, Portugal
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LAQV/REQUIMTE, Departament of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge de Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
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Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Department of Environmental Health, School of Health, CISA/Research Center in Environment and Health, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 400, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
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Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, s/n, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110624
Received: 22 August 2019 / Revised: 20 October 2019 / Accepted: 25 October 2019 / Published: 28 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Algal Toxins: Monitoring and Toxicity Profile)
Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins constitute a serious environmental and human health problem. Moreover, concerns are raised with the use of contaminated water in agriculture and vegetable production as this can lead to food contamination and human exposure to toxins as well as impairment in crop development and productivity. The objective of this work was to assess the susceptibility of two green vegetables, spinach and lettuce, to the cyanotoxins microcystin (MC) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), individually and in mixture. The study consisted of growing both vegetables in hydroponics, under controlled conditions, for 21 days in nutrient medium doped with MC or CYN at 10 μg/L and 50 μg/L, or CYN/MC mixture at 5 + 5 μg/L and 25 + 25 μg/L. Extracts from M. aeruginosa and C. ovalisporum were used as sources of toxins. The study revealed growth inhibition of the aerial part (Leaves) in both species when treated with 50µg/L of MC, CYN and CYN/MC mixture. MC showed to be more harmful to plant growth than CYN. Moreover spinach leaves growth was inhibited by both 5 + 5 and 25 + 25 µg/L CYN/MC mixtures, whereas lettuce leaves growth was inhibited only by 25 + 25 µg/L CYN/MC mixture. Overall, growth data evidence increased sensitivity of spinach to cyanotoxins in comparison to lettuce. On the other hand, plants exposed to CYN/MC mixture showed differential accumulation of CYN and MC. In addition, CYN, but not MC, was translocated from the roots to the leaves. CYN and MC affected the levels of minerals particularly in plant roots. The elements most affected were Ca, K and Mg. However, in leaves K was the mineral that was affected by exposure to cyanotoxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanobacteria; microcystin-LR; cylindrospermopsin; cyanotoxins mixture; plant growth; toxin bioaccumulation cyanobacteria; microcystin-LR; cylindrospermopsin; cyanotoxins mixture; plant growth; toxin bioaccumulation
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Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M.; Jos, A.; Cameán, A.; Oliveira, F.; Barreiro, A.; Machado, J.; Azevedo, J.; Pinto, E.; Almeida, A.; Campos, A.; Vasconcelos, V.; Freitas, M. Analysis of the Use of Cylindrospermopsin and/or Microcystin-Contaminated Water in the Growth, Mineral Content, and Contamination of Spinacia oleracea and Lactuca sativa. Toxins 2019, 11, 624.

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