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Open AccessArticle

Imbalance in the Blood Concentrations of Selected Steroids in Pre-pubertal Gilts Depending on the Time of Exposure to Low Doses of Zearalenone

1
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13/29, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Dairy Industry Innovation Institute Ltd., 11-700 Mrągowo, Poland
3
Microbiology Laboratory, Non-Public Health Care Centre, ul. Limanowskiego 31A, 10-342 Olsztyn, Poland
4
Independent Public Health Care Centre of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration, and the Warmia and Mazury Oncology Centre in Olsztyn, Wojska Polskiego 37, 10-228 Olsztyn, Poland
5
Department of Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Słoneczna 34, 10-710 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(10), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11100561
Received: 12 August 2019 / Revised: 19 September 2019 / Accepted: 22 September 2019 / Published: 25 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Occurence in Feed and Their Influence on Animal Health)
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin that not only binds to estrogen receptors, but also interacts with steroidogenic enzymes and acts as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that low doses, minimal anticipated biological effect level (MABEL), no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and lowest-adverse-effect level (LOAEL), of ZEN administered orally for 42 days can induce changes in the peripheral blood concentrations of selected steroid hormones (estradiol, progesterone and testosterone) in pre-pubertal gilts. The experiment was performed on 60 clinically healthy gilts with average BW of 14.5 ± 2 kg, divided into three experimental groups and a control group. Group ZEN5 animals were orally administered ZEN at 5 μg ZEN/kg BW, group ZEN10 — at 10 μg ZEN/kg BW, group ZEN15 — at 15 μg ZEN/kg BW, whereas group C received a placebo. Five gilts from every group were euthanized on analytical dates 1, 2 and 3 (days 7, 14 and 42 of the experiment). Qualitative and quantitative changes in the biotransformation of low ZEN doses were observed. These processes were least pronounced in group ZEN5 (MABEL dose) where ZEN metabolites were not detected on the first analytical date, and where β-ZEL was the predominant metabolite on successive dates. The above was accompanied by an increase in the concentration of estradiol (E2) which, together with “free ZEN”, probably suppressed progesterone (P4) and testosterone (T) levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: zearalenone; low doses; steroid hormones; biotransformation; pre-pubertal gilts zearalenone; low doses; steroid hormones; biotransformation; pre-pubertal gilts
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Rykaczewska, A.; Gajęcka, M.; Onyszek, E.; Cieplińska, K.; Dąbrowski, M.; Lisieska-Żołnierczyk, S.; Bulińska, M.; Babuchowski, A.; Gajęcki, M.T.; Zielonka, Ł. Imbalance in the Blood Concentrations of Selected Steroids in Pre-pubertal Gilts Depending on the Time of Exposure to Low Doses of Zearalenone. Toxins 2019, 11, 561.

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