Next Article in Journal
Imbalance in the Blood Concentrations of Selected Steroids in Pre-pubertal Gilts Depending on the Time of Exposure to Low Doses of Zearalenone
Previous Article in Journal
Chemical and Biological Characteristics of Antimicrobial α-Helical Peptides Found in Solitary Wasp Venoms and Their Interactions with Model Membranes
Open AccessArticle

Ultrasonographic and Three-Dimensional Analyses at the Glabella and Radix of the Nose for Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection Procedures into the Procerus Muscle

1
Medical R&D Center, Bodyfriend, 163 Yangjaecheon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06302, Korea
2
Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Human Identification Research Institute, BK21 PLUS Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea
3
Department of Anatomy and Tumor Immunity Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 03080, Korea
4
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, College of Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(10), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11100560
Received: 27 August 2019 / Revised: 19 September 2019 / Accepted: 20 September 2019 / Published: 24 September 2019
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections are widely used for facial rejuvenation procedures, and the procerus muscle is a major target in cases of glabellar transverse lines or rhytids. Although there have been many cadaveric studies of the procerus, its depth and thickness have not been investigated thoroughly. The aim of this study was to measure the depth and thickness of the procerus and identify the location of the intercanthal vein using ultrasonographic (US) imaging and the three-dimensional scanning method, which is needed to know to avoid side effects during BoNT injections. The morphology of the procerus was classified into two types based on the US images obtained at the glabella. The procerus was located deeper below the skin surface at the glabella than the sellion (3.8 ± 0.7 mm versus 2.7 ± 0.6 mm). The width of the procerus in US images increased from the sellion (10.9 ± 0.2 mm) to the glabella (14.5 ± 4.6 mm), whereas its thickness decreased (from 1.6 ± 0.6 mm to 1.1 ± 0.5 mm). The intercanthal vein was located 5.1 ± 4.0 mm superior to the sellion and 3.0 ± 0.6 mm below the skin’s surface. The present findings provide anatomical knowledge as well as the reference location information for use when injecting BoNT into the procerus. View Full-Text
Keywords: M. procerus; glabella; sellion; radix of the nose; botulinum neurotoxin injection; facial rejuvenation procedures; ultrasonographic imaging; 3D scanning imaging; glabellar transverse line M. procerus; glabella; sellion; radix of the nose; botulinum neurotoxin injection; facial rejuvenation procedures; ultrasonographic imaging; 3D scanning imaging; glabellar transverse line
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Cho, Y.; Lee, H.-J.; Lee, K.-W.; Lee, K.-L.; Kang, J.S.; Kim, H.-J. Ultrasonographic and Three-Dimensional Analyses at the Glabella and Radix of the Nose for Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection Procedures into the Procerus Muscle. Toxins 2019, 11, 560.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop