Next Article in Journal
Application of Metabolomic Tools for Studying Low Molecular-Weight Fraction of Animal Venoms and Poisons
Next Article in Special Issue
Antibody Cross-Reactivity in Antivenom Research
Previous Article in Journal
Determination of the Role of Microcystis aeruginosa in Toxin Generation Based on Phosphoproteomic Profiles
Previous Article in Special Issue
Basics of Antibody Phage Display Technology
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2018, 10(8), 305;

Current Advances in Immunological Studies on the Vespidae Venom Antigen 5: Therapeutic and Prophylaxis to Hypersensitivity Responses

Laboratório de Biologia Molecular de Artrópodes-LBMA-IB-RC-UNESP (Univ Estadual Paulista), Av. 24-A, n_ 1515, Bela Vista, Rio Claro 13506-900, SP, Brazil
Departamento de Biomedicina, Faculdade de Americana, FAM, Av. Joaquim Bôer, 733 Jardim Luciane, Americana 13477-360, SP, Brazil
Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peçonhentos-CEVAP (Univ Estadual Paulista), Rua José Barbosa de Barros, 1780, Fazenda Experimental Lageado, Botucatu 18610-307, SP, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discovery of Antibodies and Novel Antivenoms against Envenoming)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1867 KB, uploaded 13 August 2018]   |  


Although systemic reactions caused by allergenic proteins present in venoms affect a small part of the world population, Hymenoptera stings are among the main causes of immediate hypersensitivity responses, with risk of anaphylactic shock. In the attempt to obtain therapeutic treatments and prophylaxis to hypersensitivity responses, interest in the molecular characterization of these allergens has grown in the scientific community due to the promising results obtained in immunological and clinical studies. The present review provides an update on the knowledge regarding the immune response and the therapeutic potential of Antigen 5 derived from Hymenoptera venom. The results confirm that the identification and topology of epitopes, associated with molecular regions that interact with antibodies, are crucial to the improvement of hypersensitivity diagnostic methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: Antigen 5; Hymenoptera; immune response; hypersensitivity; anaphylaxis Antigen 5; Hymenoptera; immune response; hypersensitivity; anaphylaxis

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bazon, M.L.; Silveira, L.H.; Simioni, P.U.; Brochetto-Braga, M.R. Current Advances in Immunological Studies on the Vespidae Venom Antigen 5: Therapeutic and Prophylaxis to Hypersensitivity Responses. Toxins 2018, 10, 305.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top