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Toxins 2018, 10(10), 393;

Antibody Cross-Reactivity in Antivenom Research

Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK
Computational Biology Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
Department of Bio and Health Informatics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discovery of Antibodies and Novel Antivenoms against Envenoming)
PDF [2427 KB, uploaded 11 October 2018]


Antivenom cross-reactivity has been investigated for decades to determine which antivenoms can be used to treat snakebite envenomings from different snake species. Traditionally, the methods used for analyzing cross-reactivity have been immunodiffusion, immunoblotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), enzymatic assays, and in vivo neutralization studies. In recent years, new methods for determination of cross-reactivity have emerged, including surface plasmon resonance, antivenomics, and high-density peptide microarray technology. Antivenomics involves a top-down assessment of the toxin-binding capacities of antivenoms, whereas high-density peptide microarray technology may be harnessed to provide in-depth knowledge on which toxin epitopes are recognized by antivenoms. This review provides an overview of both the classical and new methods used to investigate antivenom cross-reactivity, the advantages and disadvantages of each method, and examples of studies using the methods. A special focus is given to antivenomics and high-density peptide microarray technology as these high-throughput methods have recently been introduced in this field and may enable more detailed assessments of antivenom cross-reactivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: antivenom; cross-reactivity; cross-neutralization; high-density peptide microarray technology; antivenomics; snakebite envenoming; venom; toxins antivenom; cross-reactivity; cross-neutralization; high-density peptide microarray technology; antivenomics; snakebite envenoming; venom; toxins

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Ledsgaard, L.; Jenkins, T.P.; Davidsen, K.; Krause, K.E.; Martos-Esteban, A.; Engmark, M.; Rørdam Andersen, M.; Lund, O.; Laustsen, A.H. Antibody Cross-Reactivity in Antivenom Research. Toxins 2018, 10, 393.

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