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Toxins 2018, 10(7), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10070257

Growth and Toxin Production of Gambierdiscus spp. Can Be Regulated by Quorum-Sensing Bacteria

1
School of Life Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2
Center for Microalgal Biotechnology and Biofuels, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430070, China
3
Shenzhen Public Platform of Screening & Application of Marine Microbial Resources, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, China
4
State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 999077, China
5
Shenzhen Key Laboratory for the Sustainable Use of Marine Biodiversity, Research Centre for the Oceans and Human Health, City University of Hong Kong Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen 518057, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 May 2018 / Revised: 20 June 2018 / Accepted: 20 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Marine Biotoxins)
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Abstract

Gambierdiscus spp. are the major culprit responsible for global ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). At present, the effects of microbiological factors on algal proliferation and toxin production are poorly understood. To evaluate the regulatory roles of quorum-sensing (QS) bacteria in the physiology of Gambierdiscus, co-culture experiments with screened QS strains were conducted in this study. Except for the growth-inhibiting effect from the strain Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, the algal host generally displayed much higher growth potential and toxin production ability with the existence of QS strains. In addition, Bacillus anthracis particularly exhibited a broad-spectrum growth enhancement effect on various Gambierdiscus types, as well as a remarkable influence on algal toxicity. The variations of algal physiological status, including growth rate, chlorophyll content, and responsive behaviors, are potential reasons for the observed positive or negative affection. This study suggests that QS bacteria regulate the algal growth and toxin production. Based on the evidence, we further speculate that QS bacteria may contribute to the site-specific distribution of CFP risk through regulating the algal host biomass and toxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ciguatera fish poisoning; Gambierdiscus; quorum sensing; algal–bacterial relationship Ciguatera fish poisoning; Gambierdiscus; quorum sensing; algal–bacterial relationship
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, B.; Yao, M.; Zhou, J.; Tan, S.; Jin, H.; Zhang, F.; Mak, Y.L.; Wu, J.; Lai Chan, L.; Cai, Z. Growth and Toxin Production of Gambierdiscus spp. Can Be Regulated by Quorum-Sensing Bacteria. Toxins 2018, 10, 257.

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