Next Article in Journal
The Effects of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on the Pig Large Intestine. A Light and Electron Microscopy Study
Next Article in Special Issue
Resveratrol Ameliorates Microcystin-LR-Induced Testis Germ Cell Apoptosis in Rats via SIRT1 Signaling Pathway Activation
Previous Article in Journal
Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 Alleviate House Dust Mite-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions by the CD206 Mannose Receptor
Previous Article in Special Issue
Co-Occurrence of Microcystins and Taste-and-Odor Compounds in Drinking Water Source and Their Removal in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Treatment Plant
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2018, 10(4), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10040147

Toxic Cyanobacteria in Svalbard: Chemical Diversity of Microcystins Detected Using a Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Precursor Ion Screening Method

1
Center for Applied Geosciences, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Hölderlinstr. 12, 72074 Tübingen, Germany
2
BCCM/ULC, University of Liege, In-Bios Centre for Protein Engineering, B6, 4000 Liege, Belgium
3
Cawthron Institute, Halifax Street East, Nelson 7010, New Zealand
4
Structural and Computational Biology, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
5
Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Davie, FL 33314, USA
6
Department of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of Northumbria at Newcastle, Newcastle NE1 8ST, UK
7
British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK
8
Human and Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: New Advances and Future Challenges)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1564 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Cyanobacteria synthesize a large variety of secondary metabolites including toxins. Microcystins (MCs) with hepato- and neurotoxic potential are well studied in bloom-forming planktonic species of temperate and tropical regions. Cyanobacterial biofilms thriving in the polar regions have recently emerged as a rich source for cyanobacterial secondary metabolites including previously undescribed congeners of microcystin. However, detection and detailed identification of these compounds is difficult due to unusual sample matrices and structural congeners produced. We here report a time-efficient liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) precursor ion screening method that facilitates microcystin detection and identification. We applied this method to detect six different MC congeners in 8 out of 26 microbial mat samples of the Svalbard Archipelago in the Arctic. The congeners, of which [Asp3, ADMAdda5, Dhb7] MC-LR was most abundant, were similar to those reported in other polar habitats. Microcystins were also determined using an Adda-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Adda-ELISA). Nostoc sp. was identified as a putative toxin producer using molecular methods that targeted 16S rRNA genes and genes involved in microcystin production. The mcy genes detected showed highest similarities to other Arctic or Antarctic sequences. The LC-MS precursor ion screening method could be useful for microcystin detection in unusual matrices such as benthic biofilms or lichen. View Full-Text
Keywords: arctic; benthic mats; cyanotoxins; ELISA; 16S rRNA gene arctic; benthic mats; cyanotoxins; ELISA; 16S rRNA gene
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kleinteich, J.; Puddick, J.; Wood, S.A.; Hildebrand, F.; Laughinghouse IV, H.D.; Pearce, D.A.; Dietrich, D.R.; Wilmotte, A. Toxic Cyanobacteria in Svalbard: Chemical Diversity of Microcystins Detected Using a Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Precursor Ion Screening Method. Toxins 2018, 10, 147.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top