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Open AccessArticle

The Impact of Warming and Nutrients on Algae Production and Microcystins in Seston from the Iconic Lake Lesser Prespa, Greece

Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Department of Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Radboud University, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Aquatic Ecology & Water Quality Management Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
Society for the Protection of Prespa, Agios Germanos 53077, Greece
Research Institute RIKILT, BU Contaminants & Toxins, Wageningen University, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen, The Netherlands
B-WARE Research Centre, Radboud University, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Department of Aquatic Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), P.O. Box 50, 6700 AB Wageningen, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2018, 10(4), 144;
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
Lake Lesser Prespa and its adjacent pond, Vromolimni in Greece, is a shallow freshwater system and a highly protected area hosting an exceptional biodiversity. The occurrence of microcystins (MCs) producing cyanobacterial blooms in these waters during recent years can be harmful to the wildlife. We tested the hypothesis that both cyanobacterial biomass and MCs are strongly influenced by nutrients (eutrophication) and warming (climate change). Lake and pond water was collected from two sites in each water body in 2013 and incubated at three temperatures (20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C) with or without additional nutrients (nitrogen +N, phosphorus +P and both +N and +P). Based on both biovolume and chlorophyll-a concentrations, cyanobacteria in water from Lesser Prespa were promoted primarily by combined N and P additions and to a lesser extent by N alone. Warming seemed to yield more cyanobacteria biomass in these treatments. In water from Vromolimni, both N alone and N+P additions increased cyanobacteria and a warming effect was hardly discernible. MC concentrations were strongly increased by N and N+P additions in water from all four sites, which also promoted the more toxic variant MC-LR. Hence, both water bodies seem particularly vulnerable to further N-loading enhancing MC related risks. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioassay; climate change; cyanotoxins; eutrophication; nutrient addition. bioassay; climate change; cyanotoxins; eutrophication; nutrient addition.
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Maliaka, V.; Faassen, E.J.; Smolders, A.J.; Lürling, M. The Impact of Warming and Nutrients on Algae Production and Microcystins in Seston from the Iconic Lake Lesser Prespa, Greece. Toxins 2018, 10, 144.

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