Next Article in Journal
Human Recombinant Fab Fragment Neutralizes Shiga Toxin Type 2 Cytotoxic Effects in vitro and in vivo
Previous Article in Journal
Infection with a Nonencapsulated Bacillus anthracis Strain in Rabbits—The Role of Bacterial Adhesion and the Potential for a Safe Live Attenuated Vaccine
Previous Article in Special Issue
Variations in the Botulinum Neurotoxin Binding Domain and the Potential for Novel Therapeutics
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2018, 10(12), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120507

The Modes of Action of MARTX Toxin Effector Domains

Department of Food Science and Engineering, ELTEC College of Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 2 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Toxins: Structure–Function Relationship)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3342 KB, uploaded 2 December 2018]   |  

Abstract

Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens directly deliver numerous effector proteins from the bacterium to the host cell, thereby altering the target cell physiology. The already well-characterized effector delivery systems are type III, type IV, and type VI secretion systems. Multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxins are another effector delivery platform employed by some genera of Gram-negative bacteria. These single polypeptide exotoxins possess up to five effector domains in a modular fashion in their central regions. Upon binding to the host cell plasma membrane, MARTX toxins form a pore using amino- and carboxyl-terminal repeat-containing arms and translocate the effector domains into the cells. Consequently, MARTX toxins affect the integrity of the host cells and often induce cell death. Thus, they have been characterized as crucial virulence factors of certain human pathogens. This review covers how each of the MARTX toxin effector domains exhibits cytopathic and/or cytotoxic activities in cells, with their structural features revealed recently. In addition, future directions for the comprehensive understanding of MARTX toxin-mediated pathogenesis are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterial protein toxin; MARTX toxin; effector domain; host–microbe interaction; host–pathogen interaction bacterial protein toxin; MARTX toxin; effector domain; host–microbe interaction; host–pathogen interaction
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, B.S. The Modes of Action of MARTX Toxin Effector Domains. Toxins 2018, 10, 507.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top