Next Article in Journal
Detection of Shiga Toxin 2 Produced by Escherichia coli in Foods Using a Novel AlphaLISA
Previous Article in Journal
Identification of Causative Ciguatoxins in Red Snappers Lutjanus bohar Implicated in Ciguatera Fish Poisonings in Vietnam
Previous Article in Special Issue
Structural and Mechanistic Features of ClyA-Like α-Pore-Forming Toxins
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2018, 10(10), 421;

Variations in the Botulinum Neurotoxin Binding Domain and the Potential for Novel Therapeutics

Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
Ipsen Bioinnovation Limited, Abingdon OX14 4RY, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Toxins: Structure–Function Relationship)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3925 KB, uploaded 20 October 2018]   |  


Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are categorised into immunologically distinct serotypes BoNT/A to /G). Each serotype can also be further divided into subtypes based on differences in amino acid sequence. BoNTs are ~150 kDa proteins comprised of three major functional domains: an N-terminal zinc metalloprotease light chain (LC), a translocation domain (HN), and a binding domain (HC). The HC is responsible for targeting the BoNT to the neuronal cell membrane, and each serotype has evolved to bind via different mechanisms to different target receptors. Most structural characterisations to date have focussed on the first identified subtype within each serotype (e.g., BoNT/A1). Subtype differences within BoNT serotypes can affect intoxication, displaying different botulism symptoms in vivo, and less emphasis has been placed on investigating these variants. This review outlines the receptors for each BoNT serotype and describes the basis for the highly specific targeting of neuronal cell membranes. Understanding receptor binding is of vital importance, not only for the generation of novel therapeutics but also for understanding how best to protect from intoxication. View Full-Text
Keywords: botulinum neurotoxins; binding domain; ganglioside; SV2; synaptotagmin; neurones botulinum neurotoxins; binding domain; ganglioside; SV2; synaptotagmin; neurones

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Davies, J.R.; Liu, S.M.; Acharya, K.R. Variations in the Botulinum Neurotoxin Binding Domain and the Potential for Novel Therapeutics. Toxins 2018, 10, 421.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top