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Toxins 2018, 10(12), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120498

Involvement of Carnosic Acid in the Phytotoxicity of Rosmarinus officinalis Leaves

1
United Graduate School, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwaicho, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan
2
Department of International and Environmental Agriculture Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwaicho, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan
3
Department of Crop Science, University of Ghana, Legon, P.O. Box LG 44 Accra, Ghana
4
School of Architecture and Science, Central University, P.O. Box 2305 Tema, Ghana
5
Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwaicho, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan
6
School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Toxins)
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Abstract

Weeds are rapidly developing resistance to synthetic herbicides, and this can pose a threat to the ecosystem. Exploring allelopathic species as an alternative weed control measure can help minimize the ecological threat posed by herbicide-resistant weeds. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the contribution of some polyphenols to the allelopathy of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). The phytotoxic effects of rosemary (leaves, roots, inflorescences, and stems) crude extracts were tested on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Soils incorporated with dried rosemary leaves were also tested on test plants. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was used to determine the content of some polyphenols (caffeic, ferulic, gallic, rosmarinic, carnosic, and chlorogenic acids) in rosemary. The specific activity and total activity of crude extracts and individual compounds were evaluated using lettuce. The crude extract of rosemary leaves showed the highest growth inhibitory effect among the rosemary organs tested. Soil amended with rosemary leaf debris reduced the dry matter and seed emergence of lettuce. Carnosic acid was the main compound detected in rosemary leaves and had a high specific activity when tested on lettuce. During the seed germination period, there was observed filter paper coloration among the test plants treated with carnosic acid (250 μg/mL). The high concentration and strong inhibitory effect of carnosic acid could explain the inhibitory activity of the rosemary leaf extract. Hence, we conclude based on the total activity estimation that carnosic acid among the other tested compounds is the major allelochemical in rosemary leaves. View Full-Text
Keywords: Rosmarinus officinalis; carnosic acid; allelopathy; total activity; specific activity; inhibitory; phytotoxicity Rosmarinus officinalis; carnosic acid; allelopathy; total activity; specific activity; inhibitory; phytotoxicity
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Appiah, K.S.; Mardani, H.K.; Omari, R.A.; Eziah, V.Y.; Ofosu-Anim, J.; Onwona-Agyeman, S.; Amoatey, C.A.; Kawada, K.; Katsura, K.; Oikawa, Y.; Fujii, Y. Involvement of Carnosic Acid in the Phytotoxicity of Rosmarinus officinalis Leaves. Toxins 2018, 10, 498.

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