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Open AccessArticle

Cyanobacterial Blooms and Microcystins in Southern Vietnam

Aquatic Ecology & Water Quality Management Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
Institute for Environment and Resources, Vietnam National University—Hochiminh City, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
Hochiminh City University of Technology, Vietnam National University—Hochiminh City, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
Department of Aquatic Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), P.O. Box 50, 6700 AB Wageningen, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2018, 10(11), 471;
Received: 6 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Outreach to Prevention of Aquatic Toxin Exposure)
Studies on cyanobacteria in Vietnam are limited and mainly restricted to large reservoirs. Cyanobacterial blooms in small water bodies may pose a health risk to local people. We sampled 17 water bodies in the vicinity of urban settlements throughout the Mekong basin and in southeast Vietnam. From these, 40 water samples were taken, 24 cyanobacterial strains were isolated and 129 fish, 68 snail, 7 shrimp, 4 clam, and 4 duck samples were analyzed for microcystins (MCs). MCs were detected up to 11,039 µg/L or to 4033 µg/g DW in water samples. MCs were detected in the viscera of the animals. MC-LR and MC-RR were most frequently detected, while MC-dmLR, MC-LW, and MC-LF were first recorded in Vietnam. Microcystis was the main potential toxin producer and the most common bloom-forming species. A potential health hazard was found in a duck–fish pond located in the catchment of DauTieng reservoir and in the DongNai river where raw water was collected for DongNai waterwork. The whole viscera of fish and snails must be completely removed during food processing. Cyanobacterial monitoring programs should be established to assess and minimize potential public health risks. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanobacteria; cyanotoxins; Mekong river; aquaculture cyanobacteria; cyanotoxins; Mekong river; aquaculture
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MDPI and ACS Style

Trung, B.; Dao, T.-S.; Faassen, E.; Lürling, M. Cyanobacterial Blooms and Microcystins in Southern Vietnam. Toxins 2018, 10, 471.

AMA Style

Trung B, Dao T-S, Faassen E, Lürling M. Cyanobacterial Blooms and Microcystins in Southern Vietnam. Toxins. 2018; 10(11):471.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Trung, Bui; Dao, Thanh-Son; Faassen, Elisabeth; Lürling, Miquel. 2018. "Cyanobacterial Blooms and Microcystins in Southern Vietnam" Toxins 10, no. 11: 471.

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