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Toxins 2018, 10(11), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10110457

Toxin Profiles of Okadaic Acid Analogues and Other Lipophilic Toxins in Dinophysis from Japanese Coastal Waters

1
National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Japan Fisheries Research and Education Agency, 2-12-4 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-8648, Japan
2
National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, Japan Fisheries Research and Education Agency, 2-17-5, Maruishi, Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima 739-0452, Japan
3
Central Fisheries Research Institute, Fisheries Research Department, Hokkaido Research Organization, 238, Hamanakacho, Yoichi-cho, Yoichi-gun, Hokkaido 046-8555, Japan
4
Kushiro Fisheries Research Institute, Fisheries Research Department, Hokkaido Research Organization, 4-25, Nakahamacho, Kushiro-city, Hokkaido 085-0027, Japan
5
Aomori Prefectural Industrial Technology Research Center, Fisheries Research Institute, Hiranai, Higashitsugarugun, Aomori 039-3381, Japan
6
Iwate Fisheries Technology Center, 3-75-3 Hirata, Kamaishi, Iwate 026-0001, Japan
7
Seikai National Fisheries Research Institute, Japan Fisheries Research and Education Agency, 1551-8, Taira-machi, Nagasaki-shi, Nagasaki 851-2213, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 September 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dinophysis Toxins: Distribution, Fate in Shellfish and Impacts)
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Abstract

The identification and quantification of okadaic acid (OA)/dinophysistoxin (DTX) analogues and pectenotoxins (PTXs) in Dinophysis samples collected from coastal locations around Japan were evaluated by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The species identified and analyzed included Dinophysis fortii, D. acuminata, D. mitra (Phalacroma mitra), D. norvegica, D. infundibulus, D. tripos, D. caudata, D. rotundata (Phalacroma rotundatum), and D. rudgei. The dominant toxin found in D. acuminata was PTX2 although some samples contained DTX1 as a minor toxin. D. acuminata specimens isolated from the southwestern regions (Takada and Hiroshima) showed characteristic toxin profiles, with only OA detected in samples collected from Takada. In contrast, both OA and DTX1, in addition to a larger proportion of PTX2, were detected in D. acuminata from Hiroshima. D. fortii showed a toxin profile dominated by PTX2 although this species had higher levels of DTX1 than D. acuminata. OA was detected as a minor toxin in some D. fortii samples collected from Yakumo, Noheji, and Hakata. PTX2 was also the dominant toxin found among other Dinophysis species analyzed, such as D. norvegica, D. tripos, and D. caudata, although some pooled picked cells of these species contained trace levels of OA or DTX1. The results obtained in this study re-confirm that cellular toxin content and profiles are different even among strains of the same species. View Full-Text
Keywords: Dinophysis; diarrhetic shellfish poisoning; marine toxins; pectenotoxin; okadaic acid; dinophysistoxin Dinophysis; diarrhetic shellfish poisoning; marine toxins; pectenotoxin; okadaic acid; dinophysistoxin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Uchida, H.; Watanabe, R.; Matsushima, R.; Oikawa, H.; Nagai, S.; Kamiyama, T.; Baba, K.; Miyazono, A.; Kosaka, Y.; Kaga, S.; Matsuyama, Y.; Suzuki, T. Toxin Profiles of Okadaic Acid Analogues and Other Lipophilic Toxins in Dinophysis from Japanese Coastal Waters. Toxins 2018, 10, 457.

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