Next Article in Journal
Mycotoxins in Tea: Occurrence, Methods of Determination and Risk Evaluation
Next Article in Special Issue
Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxin Monitoring in Commercial Wild Harvest Bivalve Shellfish in New South Wales, Australia
Previous Article in Journal
Streptomyces roseolus, A Promising Biocontrol Agent Against Aspergillus flavus, the Main Aflatoxin B1 Producer
Previous Article in Special Issue
RNA-Seq Analysis for Assessing the Early Response to DSP Toxins in Mytilus galloprovincialis Digestive Gland and Gill
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2018, 10(11), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10110443

Impact of Dinophysis acuminata Feeding Mesodinium rubrum on Nutrient Dynamics and Bacterial Composition in a Microcosm

Ocean College, Zhejiang University, No 1 Zheda Road, Zhoushan 316000, Zhejiang, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 30 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dinophysis Toxins: Distribution, Fate in Shellfish and Impacts)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3837 KB, uploaded 30 October 2018]   |  

Abstract

The development of Dinophysis populations, producers of diarrhetic shellfish toxins, has been attributed to both abiotic (e.g., water column stratification) and biotic (prey availability) factors. An important process to consider is mixotrophy of the Dinophysis species, which is an intensive feeding of the Mesodinium species for nutrients and a benefit from kleptochloroplasts. During the feeding process, the nutritional status in the environment changes due to the preference of Mesodinium and/or Dinophysis for different nutrients, prey cell debris generated by sloppy feeding, and their degradation by micro-organisms changes. However, there is little knowledge about the role of the bacterial community during the co-occurrence of Mesodinium and Dinophysis and how they directly or indirectly interact with the mixotrophs. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to characterize the environmental changes including those of the prey present, the bacterial communities, and the ambient dissolved nutrients during the co-occurrence of Mesodinium rubrum and Dinophysis acuminata. The results showed that, during the incubation of the ciliate prey Mesodinium with its predator Dinophysis, available dissolved nitrogen significantly shifted from nitrate to ammonium especially when the population of M. rubrum decayed. Growth phases of Dinophysis and Mesodinium greatly affected the structure and composition of the bacterial community. These changes could be mainly explained by both the changes of the nutrient status and the activity of Dinophysis cells. Dinophysis feeding activity also accelerated the decline of M. rubrum and contamination of cultures with okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1, and pectenotoxin-2, but their influence on the prokaryotic communities was limited to the rare taxa (<0.1%) fraction. This suggests that the interaction between D. acuminata and bacteria is species-specific and takes place intracellularly or in the phycosphere. Moreover, a majority of the dominant bacterial taxa in our cultures may also exhibit a metabolic flexibility and, thus, be unaffected taxonomically by changes within the Mesodinium-Dinophysis culture system. View Full-Text
Keywords: DSP toxins; pectenotoxins; Dinophysis acuminata; Mesodinium rubrum; bacterial community; high throughput sequencing DSP toxins; pectenotoxins; Dinophysis acuminata; Mesodinium rubrum; bacterial community; high throughput sequencing
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gao, H.; Hua, C.; Tong, M. Impact of Dinophysis acuminata Feeding Mesodinium rubrum on Nutrient Dynamics and Bacterial Composition in a Microcosm. Toxins 2018, 10, 443.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top