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Toxins 2018, 10(10), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10100410

Urea Memory: Transient Cell Exposure to Urea Causes Persistent Mitochondrial ROS Production and Endothelial Dysfunction

1
Pediatric Research Center, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, 71122 Foggia, Italy
2
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, 71122 Foggia, Italy
3
Pediatric Residency Program, University of Foggia, 71122 Foggia, Italy
4
Departement of Pediatrics, Scientific Institute “Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza”, University of Foggia, 71122 Foggia, Italy
5
Diabetes Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY 10461, USA
These two authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 7 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uremia and Cardiovascular Disease)
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Abstract

Urea at post-dialysis levels induces increased ROS in a number of cell types. The aim of this study was to determine whether urea-induced production of ROS remains elevated after urea is no longer present, and, if it does, to characterize its origin and effects. Human arterial endothelial cells were incubated with 20 mM urea for two days, and then cells were incubated for an additional two days in medium alone. Maximal ROS levels induced by initial urea continued at the same level despite urea being absent. These effects were prevented by either MnSOD expression or by Nox1/4 inhibition with GKT13781. Sustained urea-induced ROS caused a persistent reduction in mtDNA copy number and electron transport chain transcripts, a reduction in transcription of mitochondrial fusion proteins, an increase in mitochondrial fission proteins, and persistent expression of endothelial inflammatory markers. The SOD-catalase mimetic MnTBAP reversed each of these. These results suggest that persistent increases in ROS after cells are no long exposed to urea may play a major role in continued kidney damage and functional decline despite reduction of urea levels after dialysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: urea; uremic memory; CRF; chronic renal failure; ROS; reactive oxygen species; ESRD; end stage renal disease; CVD; cardiovascular disease urea; uremic memory; CRF; chronic renal failure; ROS; reactive oxygen species; ESRD; end stage renal disease; CVD; cardiovascular disease
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d’Apolito, M.; Colia, A.L.; Manca, E.; Pettoello-Mantovani, M.; Sacco, M.; Maffione, A.B.; Brownlee, M.; Giardino, I. Urea Memory: Transient Cell Exposure to Urea Causes Persistent Mitochondrial ROS Production and Endothelial Dysfunction. Toxins 2018, 10, 410.

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