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Toxins 2018, 10(10), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10100396

Comment on Ultrasound Guidance for Botulinum Neurotoxin Chemodenervation Procedures. Toxins 2017, 10, 18—Quintessential Use of Ultrasound Guidance for Botulinum Toxin Injections—Muscle Innervation Zone Targeting Revisited

1
Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara 06100, Turkey
2
Ankara Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Training and Research Center, Ankara 06100, Turkey
3
Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Ege University Medical School, İzmir 35100, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Muscle Selection for BoNT)
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Abstract

Recently, the importance of targeting structures during botulinum neurotoxin applications has been discussed in a variety of disorders, including spasticity and dystonia. In this respect, the advantages of ultrasound imaging to traditional techniques have been emphasized. We would like underscore the importance of ultrasound guidance, with targeting innervation zone(s) of the over-active muscles to achieve effective clinical outcomes. Additionally, we also clarify the difference between the terms—innervation zone (motor end plate) and motor point—which have been used by the authors as if they were the same. Further, we disagree with the authors about the intramuscular botulinum neurotoxin application techniques i.e., in-plane vs. out-of-plane whereby the former is, for sure, superior. View Full-Text
Keywords: botulinum toxin; innervation zone; ultrasound botulinum toxin; innervation zone; ultrasound
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Kaymak, B.; Malas, F.Ü.; Kara, M.; On, A.Y.; Özçakar, L. Comment on Ultrasound Guidance for Botulinum Neurotoxin Chemodenervation Procedures. Toxins 2017, 10, 18—Quintessential Use of Ultrasound Guidance for Botulinum Toxin Injections—Muscle Innervation Zone Targeting Revisited. Toxins 2018, 10, 396.

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