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Toxins 2018, 10(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10010018

Ultrasound Guidance for Botulinum Neurotoxin Chemodenervation Procedures

1
Functional and Applied Biomechanics Section, Rehabilitation Medicine, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1604, USA
2
Combined Neurosciences IRB, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1604, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Muscle Selection for BoNT)
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Abstract

Injections of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are prescribed by clinicians for a variety of disorders that cause over-activity of muscles; glands; pain and other structures. Accurately targeting the structure for injection is one of the principle goals when performing BoNTs procedures. Traditionally; injections have been guided by anatomic landmarks; palpation; range of motion; electromyography or electrical stimulation. Ultrasound (US) based imaging based guidance overcomes some of the limitations of traditional techniques. US and/or US combined with traditional guidance techniques is utilized and or recommended by many expert clinicians; authors and in practice guidelines by professional academies. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of available guidance techniques including US as well as technical aspects of US guidance and a focused literature review related to US guidance for chemodenervation procedures including BoNTs injection. View Full-Text
Keywords: botulinum neurotoxin; botulinum toxin; chemodenervation; guidance; ultrasound; electrical stimulation; electromyography; motor points; anatomic localization botulinum neurotoxin; botulinum toxin; chemodenervation; guidance; ultrasound; electrical stimulation; electromyography; motor points; anatomic localization
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Alter, K.E.; Karp, B.I. Ultrasound Guidance for Botulinum Neurotoxin Chemodenervation Procedures. Toxins 2018, 10, 18.

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