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Toxins 2018, 10(10), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10100384

The Impact of Uremic Toxicity Induced Inflammatory Response on the Cardiovascular Burden in Chronic Kidney Disease

1
Graduate Program in Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba, PR 80215-901, Brazil
2
Basic Pathology Department, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR 80050-540, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 23 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uremia and Cardiovascular Disease)
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Abstract

Uremic toxin (UT) retention in chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects biological systems. We aimed to identify the associations between UT, inflammatory biomarkers and biomarkers of the uremic cardiovascular response (BUCVR) and their impact on cardiovascular status as well as their roles as predictors of outcome in CKD patients. CKD patients stages 3, 4 and 5 (n = 67) were recruited and UT (indoxyl sulfate/IS, p-cresil sulfate/pCS and indole-3-acetic acid/IAA); inflammatory biomarkers [Interleukin-6 (IL-6), high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble Fas (sFas)] and BUCVRs [soluble CD36 (sCD36), soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), fractalkine] was measured. Patients were followed for 5.2 years and all causes of death was used as the primary outcome. Artery segments collected at the moment of transplantation were used for the immunohistochemistry analysis in a separate cohort. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), circulating UT, plasma biomarkers of systemic and vascular inflammation and BUCVR were strongly interrelated. Patients with plaque presented higher signs of UT-induced inflammation and arteries from CKD patients presented higher fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) tissue expression. Circulating IS (p = 0.03), pCS (p = 0.007), IL-6 (p = 0.026), sFas (p = 0.001), sCD36 (p = 0.01) and fractalkine (p = 0.02) were independent predictors of total mortality risk in CKD patients. Our results reinforce the important role of uremic toxicity in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients through an inflammatory pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: uremic toxins; inflammatory biomarkers; sCD36; sRAGE; fractalkine (CX3CL1); fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) uremic toxins; inflammatory biomarkers; sCD36; sRAGE; fractalkine (CX3CL1); fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1)
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Claro, L.M.; Moreno-Amaral, A.N.; Gadotti, A.C.; Dolenga, C.J.; Nakao, L.S.; Azevedo, M.L.; de Noronha, L.; Olandoski, M.; de Moraes, T.P.; Stinghen, A.E.M.; Pécoits-Filho, R. The Impact of Uremic Toxicity Induced Inflammatory Response on the Cardiovascular Burden in Chronic Kidney Disease. Toxins 2018, 10, 384.

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