Next Article in Journal
Characterization of Chicken-Derived Single Chain Antibody Fragments against Venom of Naja Naja Atra
Previous Article in Journal
Immunogenicity of a Bivalent Non-Purified Recombinant Vaccine against Botulism in Cattle
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2018, 10(10), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10100382

Development and Application of a QuEChERS-Based Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method to Quantitate Multi-Component Alternaria Toxins in Jujube

1
Beijing Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Organic Farming, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
2
Management of Scientific Research, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Urumqi 830091, China
3
Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Quality and Safety of Xinjiang, Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Agro-Products (Urumqi), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Urumqi 830091, China
4
Institute of Quality Standards & Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Urumqi 830091, China
5
CAS Key Laboratory of Nutrition, Metabolism and Food Safety, Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 19 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2019 KB, uploaded 21 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

A simple, rapid and efficient methodology was developed and validated for the analysis of four Alternaria toxins in jujube: Tenuazonic acid, alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and tentoxin. Under the optimized extraction procedure, chromatographic conditions, and instrumental parameters, the four toxins were effectively extracted via a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method, and quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Matrix-matched calibrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 μg mL−1 were conducted for the quantification due to the matrix effect. A blank jujube sample was spiked at 40, 80 and 160 μg kg−1, obtaining recoveries in the range of 83.5–109.6%. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were in the range of 0.14–0.26 and 0.47–0.87 μg kg−1, respectively. Finally, the developed method was applied for the quantification of the four toxins in 14 jujube samples, including black spot-infected and uninfected samples. Results showed that the predominant toxin detected in all the samples was tenuazonic acid, the content of which was associated with the infection level; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and tentoxin were detected in all the infected samples and some of the uninfected samples with rather low contents. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alternaria toxins; jujube; QuEChERS; UPLC-MS/MS Alternaria toxins; jujube; QuEChERS; UPLC-MS/MS
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, C.; Fan, Y.; He, W.; Hu, D.; Wu, A.; Wu, W. Development and Application of a QuEChERS-Based Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method to Quantitate Multi-Component Alternaria Toxins in Jujube. Toxins 2018, 10, 382.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top