Next Article in Journal
Fructose Consumption, Lipogenesis, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Previous Article in Journal
A Novel Combination of Wheat Peptides and Fucoidan Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage through Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Pro-Survival Mechanisms
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 980;

1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 Attenuates TGF-β-Induced Pro-Fibrotic Effects in Human Lung Epithelial Cells through Inhibition of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition

Department of Labor Hygiene and Environmental Health, School of Public Health of Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, China
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [3887 KB, uploaded 6 September 2017]   |  


Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive fibrotic lung disease of persisting lung injury and ineffective wound repair, with poor prognosis. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of alveolar epithelia cells is an early event in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is an acknowledged inducer of EMT. Epidemiological studies demonstrated that serum levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D were associated with the presence of fibrosis diseases. We investigated whether vitamin D attenuated TGF-β-induced pro-fibrotic effects through inhibiting EMT in human alveolar epithelia A549 cells. A549 cells were cultured with TGF-β alone or in combination with 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3). TGF-β increased the expression of the mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and Vimentin), and decreased the expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin). 1α,25(OH)2D3 attenuated these TGF-β-induced alterations. Furthermore, the EMT-related transcription factors (Snail and β-catenin) and the extracellular matrix genes (Collagen I and fibronectin) were inhibited by 1α,25(OH)2D3, while the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) was elevated. In addition, 1α,25(OH)2D3 alleviated the cell migration and the invasion abilities in TGF-β-stimulated A549 cells, determined by the scratch wound healing and transwell assays. Our findings suggested that 1α,25(OH)2D3 inhibited the pro-fibrotic phenotype of lung epithelial cells under TGF-β stimulation and provided new clues in the clinical management of pulmonary fibrosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; fibrosis; EMT vitamin D; fibrosis; EMT

Figure 1a

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, F.; Yang, Y.; Xue, L.; Li, B.; Zhang, Z. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 Attenuates TGF-β-Induced Pro-Fibrotic Effects in Human Lung Epithelial Cells through Inhibition of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition. Nutrients 2017, 9, 980.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top