Vitamin D Sufficiency of Canadian Children Did Not Improve Following the 2010 Revision of the Dietary Guidelines That Recommend Higher Intake of Vitamin D: An Analysis of the Canadian Health Measures Survey
School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Population Health Intervention Research Unit, 3-50 University Terrace, 8303 112 Street, Edmonton, AB T6G2T4, Canada
Agricultural, Food & Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G1C9, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9090945
Received: 23 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
In 2010, the dietary guidelines for vitamin D for Canadians and Americans aged 1–70 years were revised upward. It is unknown whether the vitamin D status of Canadian children improved after 2010. We compared the prevalence of vitamin D sufficiency (25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration of ≥50 nmol/L), 25(OH)D concentration and the frequency of consuming vitamin D-rich foods among children aged 6–18 years-old using data from the nationally representative 2007/2009 and 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Surveys. Associations of sociodemographic, anthropometric, seasonal, and regional variables with achieving vitamin D sufficiency, 25(OH)D concentration, and consumption of vitamin D-rich foods were assessed using multiple logistic and linear regression models. 79% and 68% of children in 2007/2009 and 2012/2013 respectively, were vitamin D sufficient. The main dietary source of vitamin D was milk. Between 2007/2009 and 2012/2013, the frequency of milk and fish consumption declined, but egg and red meat consumption was unchanged. Age, income, weight status, season and ethnicity were associated with 25(OH)D concentration and vitamin D sufficiency. Vitamin D status declined after the upward revision of dietary guidelines for vitamin D, consequently, dietary intake was inadequate to meet sufficiency. Public health initiatives to promote vitamin D-rich foods and supplementation for Canadian children are needed.