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Correction: Nicodemus-Johnson, J.; et al. Fruit and Juice Epigenetic Signatures Are Associated with Independent Immunoregulatory Pathways. Nutrients 2017, 9, 752
Open AccessArticle

Changes in Bioavailability of Omega-3 (DHA) through Alpha-Tocopheryl Phosphate Mixture (TPM) after Oral Administration in Rats

Phosphagenics Limited, Unit A8, 2A Westall Road, Clayton, Melbourne, VIC 3168, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1042;
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Benefits of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplements are hindered by their poor solubility and bioavailability. This study investigated the bioavailability of various formulations of Omega-3 and tocopheryl phosphate mixture (TPM), following oral administration in rats, and assessed whether TPM could improve the oral absorption of DHA. The rats were administered with a high (265.7 mg/kg) or low dose (88.6 mg/kg) of DHA. TPM was examined at 1:0.1 w/w (low TPM dose) and 1:0.5 w/w (high TPM dose). Over 24 h, the DHA plasma concentration followed a TPM dose-dependent relationship, reflected in the higher mean Cmax values (78.39 and 91.95 μg/mL) and AUC values (1396.60 and 1560.60) for the low and high TPM, respectively. The biggest difference between the low dose DHA control (LDCont) and TPM formulations was at 4 h after supplementation, where the low and high TPM showed a mean 20% (ns) and 50% (p < 0.05) increase in DHA plasma concentrations versus the control formulation. After correcting for baseline endogenous DHA, the mean plasma DHA at 4 h produced by the LD-HTPM was nearly double (90%) the LDC control (p = 0.057). This study demonstrated that co-administering omega-3 with TPM significantly increases the bioavailability of DHA in the plasma, suggesting potential use for commercially available TPM + DHA fortified products. View Full-Text
Keywords: omega-3; DHA; tocopheryl phosphate mixture (TPM) omega-3; DHA; tocopheryl phosphate mixture (TPM)
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Libinaki, R.; Gavin, P.D. Changes in Bioavailability of Omega-3 (DHA) through Alpha-Tocopheryl Phosphate Mixture (TPM) after Oral Administration in Rats. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1042.

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