Multi-Targeted Molecular Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Polyphenols: An Opportunity for a Global Approach to Obesity
Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular (IBMC), Universidad Miguel Hernández (UMH), Edificio Torregaitán, Elche 03202, Spain
Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, Granada 18071, Spain
Research and Development of Functional Food Centre (CIDAF), PTS Granada, Avda. del Conocimiento s/n., Edificio BioRegión, Granada 18016, Spain
Unitat de Recerca Biomèdica, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus 43201, Spain
CIBER: CB12/03/30038, Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición, CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Palma de Mallorca 07122, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080907
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 20 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
Improper diet can alter gene expression by breaking the energy balance equation and changing metabolic and oxidative stress biomarkers, which can result in the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. The pleiotropic effects of dietary plant polyphenols are capable of counteracting by modulating different key molecular targets at the cell, as well as through epigenetic modifications. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS)-derived polyphenols are known to ameliorate various obesity-related conditions. Recent evidence leads to propose the complex nature of the underlying mechanism of action. This multi-targeted mechanism includes the regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways, transcription factors, hormones and peptides, digestive enzymes, as well as epigenetic modifications. This article reviews the accumulated evidence on the multiple anti-obesity effects of HS polyphenols in cell and animal models, as well as in humans, and its putative molecular targets. In silico studies reveal the capacity of several HS polyphenols to act as putative ligands for different digestive and metabolic enzymes, which may also deserve further attention. Therefore, a global approach including integrated and networked omics techniques, virtual screening and epigenetic analysis is necessary to fully understand the molecular mechanisms of HS polyphenols and metabolites involved, as well as their possible implications in the design of safe and effective polyphenolic formulations for obesity.