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Open AccessArticle

The Influence of Maternal Dietary Patterns on Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain in Urban Black South African Women

1
MRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
2
Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070732
Received: 4 May 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and subsequent gestational weight gain (GWG) are strong predictors of maternal and infant outcomes; however the influence of dietary patterns on BMI-specific GWG is unclear. This study identifies patterns of habitual dietary intake in urban South African women and explores their associations with first trimester BMI and GWG. Habitual dietary intake of 538 pregnant women was assessed using a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and dietary patterns were depicted via principle component analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and BMI-specific GWG were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western, Traditional and Mixed. Western and Mixed diet patterns were associated with 35 g/week (p = 0.021) and 24 g/week (p = 0.041) higher GWG in normal weight and obese women respectively. Additionally, high intakes of a Traditional diet pattern were associated with a reduced odds of excessive weight gain in the total sample (OR: 0.81; p = 0.006) and in normal weight women (OR: 0.68; p = 0.003). Increased intake of a traditional diet pattern—high in whole grains, legumes, vegetables and traditional meats—and decreased intake of refined, high sugar and fat driven diets may reduce GWG (including risk of excessive weight gain) in urban South African women. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary patterns; body mass index; gestational weight gain; urbanisation dietary patterns; body mass index; gestational weight gain; urbanisation
MDPI and ACS Style

Wrottesley, S.V.; Pisa, P.T.; Norris, S.A. The Influence of Maternal Dietary Patterns on Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain in Urban Black South African Women. Nutrients 2017, 9, 732.

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