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Correction

Correction: Scourboutakos, M.J.; et al. Mismatch between Probiotic Benefits in Trials versus Food Products. Nutrients 2017, 9, 400

1
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M1E 3S1, Canada
2
Center for Child Nutrition and Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M1E 3S1, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070641
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017

Abstract

We would like to submit the following correction to our recently published paper [1] because the wrong dose of probiotic was reported. [...]
We would like to submit the following correction to our recently published paper [1] because the wrong dose of probiotic was reported. The probiotic dosage has been corrected throughout Table 1 and Table 2 (Table 1: in the fifth column of the sixth row and in the fifth column of the seventh row, 2 × 1010 was changed to 1 × 1010; Table 2: in the fourth column of the seventeenth row, 2 × 1010 was changed to 1 × 1010). The correct tables are shown below.
These corrections induced a few minor changes in the text of the results section. As a consequence of this correction, the following sentences should be corrected:

Results

On page 9, the second sentence of paragraph three, of the original publication [1] incorrectly stated “However, the dosage tested in the study (20 billion colony forming units (cfu) per day) was twenty times the dosage found in the product (1 billion cfu per day).”. Instead, this statement should read “However, the dosage tested in the study (10 billion colony forming units (cfu) per day) was ten times the dosage found in the product (1 billion cfu per day).”.
These changes have no material impact on the conclusions of our paper. The manuscript will be updated and the original will remain online on the article webpage. We apologize for any inconvenience caused to our readers.

Reference

  1. Scourboutakos, M.J.; Franco-Arellano, B.; Murphy, S.A.; Norsen, S.; Comelli, E.M.; L’abbe, M.R. Mismatch between Probiotic Benefits in Trials versus Food Products. Nutrients 2017, 9, 400. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Table 1. Strains in probiotic food products and reported health effects associated with these strains.
Table 1. Strains in probiotic food products and reported health effects associated with these strains.
Strain(s)Manufacturer and Product BrandFood TypeProbiotic Dosage in Food (CFU */Serving)Dosage Tested in Studies (CFU */Day)Duration of StudyHealth Effects Investigated in Healthy Populations
Acute DiarrheaAntibiotic-Associated DiarrheaConstipationDigestive SymptomsGlycemic ControlHelicobacter pylori EradicationImmunityInfant Breastfeeding OutcomesInflammationSerum Lipids/Blood PressureOral Health
Bifidobacterium lactis BB12 + Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5Yoplait’s Yoptimal, Lucerne’s OrganicsYogurt>1 × 1092 × 106–3 × 1097 days–6 weeks X [20] $ O [21]O [20] $ O [22,23]x [24,25]
Bifidobacterium lactis BB12Iogo’s Probio **, Yoplait’s MinigoYogurt>1 × 1091 × 1010–3.5 × 1010 10 days—3 months o [26] $ [27] O [28] $ X [29]
Lactobacillus casei DN 114-001Danone’s DanActiveDrinkable yogurt1 × 10101 × 1010–3 × 10102 weeks –6 monthsx [30] $, [31] o [32] $X [33] $ x [34] $X [35,36] $ x [26,30] $x [37] $
Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010Danone’s ActiviaYogurt>1 × 1098 × 109–2.5 × 1010 2–4 weeks o [38] $X [39,40] $ x [38] $ O [41] $
Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM + Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07Astro’s BioBestYogurt1 × 1091 × 10106 monthso [42] $ x [42] $
Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFMPresident’s Choice’s ProAdvantage†Yogurt1 × 1091 × 10106 monthso [42] $ x [42] $
X = beneficial effects observed in healthy adults; x = beneficial effects observed in healthy children, O = studies that have investigated this outcome and have found no significant effect in adults, o = studies that have investigated this outcome and found no significant effect in children, $ = indicates that the research was funded by the company that uses that particular strain in their products. A blank square indicates that no research investigating the effects of that strain/strain combination was identified during the systematic review of all literature published up to 21 July 2016, as described in the methods. All effects reported in this table were found in healthy populations that were not diagnosed with a chronic disease or condition. Definition of health effects: Constipation = improved stool frequency, consistency, or condition; Acute diarrhea = decreased incidence or severity of acute diarrhea; Antibiotic-associated diarrhea = decreased incidence of antibiotic-associated or Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea; Digestive symptoms = decreased abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating, flatulence, or overall GI well-being; Glycemic control = improved fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c (marker of long-term glycemic control), or HOMA-IR (measure of insulin sensitivity); Helicobacter pylori eradication = enhanced eradication of Helicobacter pylori infections; Immunity = decreased incidence and/or duration of common infectious diseases, including fever, cough, common respiratory infections (rhinitis, sore throat), common gastrointestinal infections (gastroenteritis, vomiting), asthma, or days missed from school; Infant breastfeeding outcomes = infants (2–6 months old) of mothers who consume this strain while breastfeeding had decreased incidence of gastrointestinal episodes and lower medication-use rates; Inflammation = decreased levels of inflammatory markers (ex. C-reactive protein); Lipids = decreased serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride levels, or increased high density lipoprotein (HDL); Oral health = decreased levels of cavity causing bacteria. * CFU = colony forming units. ** Iogo’s Probio reported two strains on its label in 2013 (Bifidobacterium lactis BB12 + Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5) and only one strain on its label in 2016. † These products were available in 2013 but may no longer be available in the Canadian market. Note: All cited references were deemed to be of high quality according to Health Canada’s quality appraisal tool for intervention studies [18].
Table 2. Results of the review of randomized controlled trials investigating the health effects of probiotic strains found in the Canadian food supply 1.
Table 2. Results of the review of randomized controlled trials investigating the health effects of probiotic strains found in the Canadian food supply 1.
StrainStudy, Country (Year)Population (n)Probiotic Dosage (CFU per day)Study DurationOutcome Measures (Primary and Secondary)Statistically Significant Effects (Relative to Placebo Group)Funding Source
B lactis BB12 + L acidophilus LA-5Ivey et al. [21] Australia (2014)Overweight adults n = 1563 × 1096 weeksPrimary: Glycemic control (fasting blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR)Increased HOMA-IR (worsened insulin sensitivity)Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital
Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh et al. [23] Iran (2010)Females n = 903.9 × 1076 weeksPrimary: Serum total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglyceridesNo observed effectsTehran University Grant
Ivey et al. [22] Australia (2015)Overweight adults n = 1563 × 1096 weeksPrimary: Blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglyceridesNo observed effectsSir Charles Gairdner Hospital
deVrese et al. [20] Germany (2011)H pylori infected adults n = 885 × 1065 weeksPrimary: Helicobacter pylori activity; Secondary: Frequency, intensity and duration of abdominal pain; stool frequency/consistency; duration of diarrhea episodes; IBS symptoms; orofecal transit timeDecreased duration of antibiotic-associated diarrhea episodes Chr. Hansen GmbH J. & Co., KG, NOM AG $
Ashwin et al. [24] India (2015)Children n = 602 × 1067 daysPrimary: Salivary levels of streptococcus mutans (a cavity causing bacteria)Reduced salivary mutans streptococciFunded by study author
Singh et al. [25] India (2011)Children n = 405.4 × 10710 daysPrimary: Salivary levels of salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli (cavity causing bacteria)Reduced salivary mutans streptococciNot disclosed
Ejtahed et al. [43] Iran (2011)Type II Diabetics n = 64>1 × 1096 weeksPrimary: Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin and antioxidant molecules (superoxide dismutase, glutathion peroxidase, catalase activity, malondialdehyde concentration, and total antioxidative status)Decreased fasting blood glucose and HbA1c; increased activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathoine peroxidase, and total antioxidative status Iran Dairy Industry $
Mohamadshahi et al. [44] Iran (2014)Type II Diabetics n = 44>1 × 1098 weeksPrimary: Serum triglycerides, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, LDL:HDLDecreased LDL:HDL, increased HDLNutrition Disease Research Center
Ejtahed et al.[45] Iran (2012)Type II Diabetics n = 606 × 1086 weeksPrimary: total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, total cholesterol:HDL, LDL:HDLDecreased total cholesterol, LDL, LDL:HDL and total cholesterol:HDLGrant from Tabriz University
Nabavi et al. [46] Iran (2014)Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients n = 72>1 × 1098 weeksPrimary: Blood levels of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase); fasting blood glucose; total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL.Decreased blood levels of liver enzymes, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDLNutrition Research Center, Tabriz University
Tonucci et al. [47] Brazil (2015)Type II Diabetics n = 452 × 1096 weeksPrimary: Glycemic control (fasting blood glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, fructosamine, HbA1c); lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, triglycerides, total cholesterol:HDL); total antioxidant status and cytokine concentrations (Il-6, Il-10, TNF-α, adiponectin, and resistin); fecal short-chain fatty acidsDecreased fructosamine, LDL, and total cholesterol; significant change in HbA1cBrazilian Agri-Research; Foundation to Support the State of Miras Gerais
B. lactis BB12Caglar et al. [29] Turkey (2008)Healthy young adults n = 245 × 10810 daysPrimary: Salivary levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli (cavity causing bacteria)Decreased salivary mutans streptocociFunded by researchers
Merenstein et al. [48] USA (2010)Children n = 1821 × 101090 daysPrimary: Missed days of school due to illness; Secondary: Diarrhea, stool consistency, respiratory infection, missed parental work, doctor visits, illnesses, and overall parental satisfactionNo observed effectsThe Gerber Foundation $
Merenstein et al. [27] USA (2011)Healthy children n = 1721 × 101090 daysPrimary: Missed days of school due to illness; Secondary: Diarrhea, stool consistency, respiratory infection, missed parental work, doctor visits, illnessesNo observed effectsUSDA
Kekkonen et al. [28] Finland (2008)Healthy adults n = 623.5 × 10103 weeksPrimary: Blood levels of inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-10)No observed effectsResaerch Council Finland and Valio $
L. acidophilus NCFM + B. lactis Bi-07Leyer et al. [42] China (2009)Healthy children n = 3261 × 10106 monthsPrimary: Frequency and duration of fever, cough, rhinorrhea, vomiting, diarrhea, physicians' visits and antibiotic prescriptions; Secondary: School absencesDecreased incidence of fever, cough, rhinorrhea, antibiotic use, and days missed from school. Reduced symptom duration.Danisco $
B. lactis DN-173 010Pinto et al.[41] Brazil (2013)Healthy adults n = 26not reported2 weeksPrimary: Salivary levels of cavity-associated microorganisms (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and total microorganisms) in salivaNo observed effectsNot Disclosed
Tabbers et al. [38] Netherlands and Poland (2011)Constipated children n = 159>8 × 1093 weeksPrimary: Stool frequency; Secondary: Stool consistency, frequency of faecal incontinence, pain during defecation, abdominal pain, flatulenceDecreased flatulenceDanone $
Guyonnet et al. [39] Germany (2009)Healthy adult women n = 1922.5 × 10104 weeksPrimary: Overall GI well-being (intestinal transit, stool frequency and consistency, abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating, flatulence, stomach rumbling); Secondary: Frequency of digestive symptoms including abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating, flatulence, stomach rumbling; stool frequency and consistency; health-related quality of lifeImproved overall GI well-being; decreased frequency of flatulence, stomach rumbling, improved stool consistency, and health-related quality of life.Danone $
Agrawal et al. [40] United Kingdom (2008)Adult females with IBS n = 34 2.5 × 10104 weeksPrimary: Abdominal distension and bloating; Secondary: Orocaecal and colonic transit times; incidence and severity of IBS symptoms (abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating, flatulence); overall IBS symptom severity; time and consistency of bowel movements; feelings of incomplete evacuation at time of stool passageDecreased maximal abdominal distension, orocaecal and colonic transit times, overall IBS symptom severity, and abdominal pain/discomfort.Danone $
L. casei DN 114-001Guillemard et al. [35] Germany (2010)Healthy adult shift workers n = 1000>2 × 10103 monthsPrimary: Cumulative number of common infectious diseases (CID) (e.g., sore throat, sinusitus, nasal discharge, ear ache, influenza, pneumonia, cough, GI infection, diarrhea, nausea vomiting) Secondary: Occurrence of having at least one CID: time to first CID, severity, duration, cumulated duration; occurrence and duration of fever, sick days, medication useDecreased occurrence and time to first CID; decreased duration of fever; decreased cumulative number of CIDs (post-hoc analysis)Danone $
Merenstein et al. [26] USA (2010)Healthy children n = 638>2 × 10103 monthsPrimary: Change in behaviour due to illness (e.g., missed school, missed sports activity); incidence of common infectious diseases (CIDs) Secondary: Absences from daycare or school, missed parental work, days with diarrhea, vomiting, stomach pain, constipation, runny nose, cough, decreasing appetite, fever, rash, medication useDecreased incidence of CIDDanone $
Guillemard et al. [36] France (2009)Elderly adults n = 1072>2 × 10103 monthsPrimary: Cumulative number of all common infectious diseases (CID) Secondary: The occurrence of CID (defined as the number of subjects experiencing at least one CID), duration of CID (cumulative and per episode), time to first CID, severity of CID, fever associated with CID, occurrence or duration of medication useDecreased duration of CID episodes and cumulative duration of CIDDanone $
Sykora et al. [34] Czech Republic (2005) Children w/H Pylori n = 861 × 101014 daysPrimary: Eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori infectionIncreased Helicobacter pylori eradication rates Ministry of Health and Danone $
Ortiz-Andrellucchi et al. [37] Spain (2008)Breastfeeding infants n = 1043 × 10106 weeksPrimary: Immunomodulatory molecules in breast milk (not included in this review) Secondary: Infant growth and weight; incidence of gastrointestinal episodes, respiratory symptoms, medication use, allergies and dermatitisReduced incidence of gastrointestinal episodes and lower rate of medication use in infantsDanone $
Agarwal et al. [31] India (2002)Children n = 1502–3 × 10109 monthsPrimary: Duration of acute diarrheaDecreased duration of acute diarrhea Not Disclosed
Hickson et al. [33] United Kingdom (2007)Elderly in-patients n = 1372 × 1010 2 weeksPrimary: Incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile associated diarrheaDecreased incidence of antibiotic- and Clostridium-associated diarrheaDanone $
Giovannini et al. [30] Italy (2007)Children with asthma/rhinitis n = 1871 × 101012 monthsPrimary: Episodes and duration of asthma and rhinitis (runny/stuff nose) Secondary: Episodes and duration of abdominal symtoms, diarrhea and feverDecreased asthma and rhinitis episodes, decreased duration of diarrhea in children with rhinitisDanone $
Giralt et al. [49] Spain (2008)Gynecological cancer patients n = 85 2.8 × 10106 monthsPrimary: Frequency and severity of radiation induced diarrhea Secondary: Time to the development of diarrhea, stool consistencyImproved stool consistencyDanone $
1 All probiotic strains in the Canadian food supply were recorded and a systematic review of their health effects was conducted. All literature published up to 21 July 2016 was included, as described in the methods. All studies included in the review were deemed to be of a ”high quality” according to Health Canada’s quality appraisal tool for intervention studies and thus are considered eligible to substantiate a health claim [18]. $ Indicates that funding was provided by the food industry HbA1c = hemoglobin A1c, a long-term measure of glycemic control; HOMA-IR = a measure of insulin sensitivity; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; VLDL = very low-density lipoprotein; IBS = irritable bowel syndrome; CID = common infectious diseases.
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