Next Article in Journal
Factors Associated with Decreased Lean Tissue Index in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Previous Article in Journal
An Exploratory Study on the Influence of Psychopathological Risk and Impulsivity on BMI and Perceived Quality of Life in Obese Patients
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 430;

Micronutrient Status among Pregnant Women in Zinder, Niger and Risk Factors Associated with Deficiency

Program in International and Community Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Helen Keller International, Niamey 0000, Niger
USDA, ARS, Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 March 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [523 KB, uploaded 27 April 2017]   |  


Anemia and micronutrient (MN) deficiencies in pregnant women are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. In Niger, 58.6% of pregnant women are anemic; however, MN statuses are unknown. The study objectives were to estimate the prevalence of MN deficiencies among pregnant women in Zinder, Niger and explore associated risk factors. Pregnant women living in randomly selected rural villages (n = 88) were included. Capillary and venous blood samples (n = 770) were analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb) and plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), zinc (pZn), retinol binding protein (RBP), folate and vitamin B12. C-reactive protein and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein were measured to adjust for inflammation. The prevalence of MN deficiencies in pregnant woman was high, indicative of a severe public health problem. Prevalence of iron deficiency was 20.7% and 35.7%, by ferritin (<15 µg/L) and sTfR (>8.3 mg/L), respectively. In total, 40.7% of women had low pZn (<50 µg/dL), 79.7% had marginal RBP (<1.32 µmol/L), 44.3% of women had low folate (<10 nmol/L) and 34.8% had low B12 concentrations (<148 pmol/L). Common risk factors associated with MN status included gravidity, mid-upper-arm circumference, geophagy, malaria, and result of the woman’s last pregnancy. Interventions to promote the strengthening of antenatal care, and access and adherence to nutrition and health interventions are critical among pregnant women in this population. View Full-Text
Keywords: micronutrient; deficiency; anemia; pregnancy; antenatal care; iron; zinc; vitamin micronutrient; deficiency; anemia; pregnancy; antenatal care; iron; zinc; vitamin

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wessells, K.R.; Ouédraogo, C.T.; Young, R.R.; Faye, M.T.; Brito, A.; Hess, S.Y. Micronutrient Status among Pregnant Women in Zinder, Niger and Risk Factors Associated with Deficiency. Nutrients 2017, 9, 430.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top