Next Article in Journal
Vitamin D Status, Muscle Strength and Physical Performance Decline in Very Old Adults: A Prospective Study
Previous Article in Journal
Associations between Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Meta-Analysis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Association between Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Total Energy Intake among Mexican School-Age Children
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 383;

Beverage Consumption Habits among the European Population: Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes

International Chair for Advanced Studies on Hydration (ICASH), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35016 Las Palmas, Spain
Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35016 Las Palmas, Spain
CIBER OBN, Biomedical Research Networking Center for Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Carlos III Health Institute, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Equipe de Recherche en Epidémiologie Nutritionnelle, Centre de Recherche en Epidémiologie et Statistiques, Université Paris 13, Inserm (U1153), Inra (U1125), Cnam, COMUE Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-93017 Bobigny, France
CREA-Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria–Centro di ricerca per gli alimenti e la nutrizione, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 June 2016 / Revised: 23 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [1190 KB, uploaded 14 April 2017]   |  


Background: Fluid and water intake have received limited attention in epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to compare the average daily consumption of foods and beverages in adults of selective samples of the European Union (EU) population in order to understand the contribution of these to the total water intake (TWI), evaluate if the EU adult population consumes adequate amounts of total water (TW) according to the current guidelines, and to illustrate the real water intake in Europe. Methods: Three national European dietary surveys have been selected: Spain used the Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance Study (ANIBES) population database, Italy analyzed data from the Italian National Food Consumption Survey (INRAN-SCAI 2005-06), and French data came from the NutriNet-Santé database. Mean daily consumption was used to compare between individuals. TWI was compared with European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference values for adult men and women. Results: On average, in Spain, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 22.9) for men and 1.6 L (SE 19.4) for women; Italy recorded 1.7 L (SE 16.9) for men and 1.7 L (SE 14.1) for women; and France recorded 2.3 L (SE 4.7) for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4) for women. With the exception of women in France, neither men nor women consumed sufficient amounts of water according to EFSA reference values. Conclusions: This study highlights the need to formulate appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase TWI in the EU population. The future of beverage intake assessment requires the use of new instruments, techniques, and the application of the new available technologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: total water intake; beverages; adults; France; Italy; Spain total water intake; beverages; adults; France; Italy; Spain

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Nissensohn, M.; Sánchez-Villegas, A.; Galan, P.; Turrini, A.; Arnault, N.; Mistura, L.; Ortiz-Andrellucchi, A.; Edelenyi, F.S.; D’Addezio, L.; Serra-Majem, L. Beverage Consumption Habits among the European Population: Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes. Nutrients 2017, 9, 383.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top