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Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 369;

Relationships among Different Water-Soluble Choline Compounds Differ between Human Preterm and Donor Milk

Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, San Diego, USA and Larsson-Rosenquist Foundation Mother-Milk-Infant Center of Research Excellence, Health Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6H 3V4, Canada
Division of Neonatology, BC Women’s Hospital and Health Centre, Vancouver, BC V6H 3N1, Canada
Origins of Child Health and Disease, Healthy Starts, BC Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, BC V5Z 4H4, Canada
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
Deceased on 10 February 2016.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 1 April 2017 / Published: 7 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Choline)
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Choline is essential for infant development. Human milk choline is predominately present in three water-soluble choline (WSC) forms: free choline (FC), phosphocholine (PhosC), and glycerophosphocholine (GPC). It is unclear whether mother’s own preterm milk and pooled donor milk differ in WSC composition and whether WSC compounds are interrelated. Mother’s own preterm milk (n = 75) and donor milk (n = 30) samples from the neonatal intensive care unit, BC Women’s Hospital were analyzed for WSC composition using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Associations between different WSC compounds were determined using Pearson’s correlations, followed by Fischer r-to-z transformation. Total WSC concentration and concentrations of FC, PhosC, and GPC did not significantly differ between mother’s own milk and donor milk. FC was negatively associated with PhosC and GPC in mother’s own milk (r = −0.27, p = 0.02; r = −0.34, p = 0.003, respectively), but not in donor milk (r = 0.26, p = 0.181 r = 0.37, p = 0.062, respectively). The difference in these associations between the two milk groups were statistically significant (p = 0.03 for the association between PhosC and FC; and p = 0.003 for the association between FC and GPC). PhosC and GPC were positively associated in mother’s own milk (r = 0.32, p = 0.036) but not donor milk (r = 0.36, p = 0.062), although the difference in correlation was not statistically significant. The metabolic and clinical implications of these associations on the preterm infant need to be further elucidated. View Full-Text
Keywords: choline; preterm infant; human milk; donor milk; neonatal intensive care; breastfeeding choline; preterm infant; human milk; donor milk; neonatal intensive care; breastfeeding

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Moukarzel, S.; Soberanes, L.; Dyer, R.A.; Albersheim, S.; Elango, R.; Innis, S.M. Relationships among Different Water-Soluble Choline Compounds Differ between Human Preterm and Donor Milk. Nutrients 2017, 9, 369.

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