Next Article in Journal
Role of the Enterocyte in Fructose-Induced Hypertriglyceridaemia
Next Article in Special Issue
Associations between Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Meta-Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Homocysteine Induces Hepatic Steatosis Involving ER Stress Response in High Methionine Diet-Fed Mice
Previous Article in Special Issue
Copper to Zinc Ratio as Disease Biomarker in Neonates with Early-Onset Congenital Infections
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 351;

Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index Is Associated with Dietary Inflammatory Index and C-Reactive Protein Concentrations during Pregnancy

Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, College of Nursing & Professional Disciplines, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24289, Korea
Department of Food and Nutrition, Hoseo University, Asan 31499, Korea
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and the Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
Connecting Health Innovations, LLC, Columbia, SC 29201, USA
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Division of Epidemiology and Health Index, Center for Genome Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chungcheongbuk-do 28160, Korea (Current affiliation)
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2016 / Revised: 22 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 1 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
Full-Text   |   PDF [534 KB, uploaded 5 April 2017]   |  


There have been a limited number of studies examining the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and dietary inflammation during pregnancy. Our aim is to examine the association between pre-pregnancy BMI and the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII)™ and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations during pregnancy. The study included 631 pregnant American women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cross-sectional examinations from 2003 to 2012. Pre-pregnancy BMI was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and measured height. The cut-offs of <18.5 (underweight), 18.5–24.9 (normal), 25.0–29.9 (overweight), and ≥30 kg/m2 (obese) were used to categorize the weight status of pregnant women prior to pregnancy. The DII, a literature-based dietary index to assess the inflammatory properties of diet, was estimated based on a one-day 24-h recall. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were performed to estimate beta coefficients and the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) on the association of pre-pregnancy BMI categories with the DII and CRP concentrations during pregnancy. After controlling for variables including: race/ethnicity, family poverty income ratio, education, marital status, month in pregnancy, and smoking status during pregnancy; women who were obese before pregnancy (n = 136) had increased odds for being in the highest tertile of the DII and CRP concentrations compared to women with normal weight (AORs 2.40, 95% CIs 1.01–5.71; AORs 24.84, 95% CIs 6.19–99.67, respectively). These findings suggest that women with pre-pregnancy obesity had greater odds of reporting higher DII and having elevated CRP. In conclusion, high pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with increased odds of pro-inflammatory diet and elevated CRP levels during pregnancy in the USA. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary inflammatory index; C-reactive protein; pregnancy body mass index; NHANES; reproductive health dietary inflammatory index; C-reactive protein; pregnancy body mass index; NHANES; reproductive health

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Shin, D.; Hur, J.; Cho, E.-H.; Chung, H.-K.; Shivappa, N.; Wirth, M.D.; Hébert, J.R.; Lee, K.W. Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index Is Associated with Dietary Inflammatory Index and C-Reactive Protein Concentrations during Pregnancy. Nutrients 2017, 9, 351.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top