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Open AccessArticle

Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index Is Associated with Dietary Inflammatory Index and C-Reactive Protein Concentrations during Pregnancy

1
Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, College of Nursing & Professional Disciplines, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA
3
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24289, Korea
4
Department of Food and Nutrition, Hoseo University, Asan 31499, Korea
5
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and the Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
6
Connecting Health Innovations, LLC, Columbia, SC 29201, USA
7
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Division of Epidemiology and Health Index, Center for Genome Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chungcheongbuk-do 28160, Korea (Current affiliation)
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040351
Received: 4 December 2016 / Revised: 22 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 1 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
There have been a limited number of studies examining the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and dietary inflammation during pregnancy. Our aim is to examine the association between pre-pregnancy BMI and the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII)™ and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations during pregnancy. The study included 631 pregnant American women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cross-sectional examinations from 2003 to 2012. Pre-pregnancy BMI was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and measured height. The cut-offs of <18.5 (underweight), 18.5–24.9 (normal), 25.0–29.9 (overweight), and ≥30 kg/m2 (obese) were used to categorize the weight status of pregnant women prior to pregnancy. The DII, a literature-based dietary index to assess the inflammatory properties of diet, was estimated based on a one-day 24-h recall. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were performed to estimate beta coefficients and the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) on the association of pre-pregnancy BMI categories with the DII and CRP concentrations during pregnancy. After controlling for variables including: race/ethnicity, family poverty income ratio, education, marital status, month in pregnancy, and smoking status during pregnancy; women who were obese before pregnancy (n = 136) had increased odds for being in the highest tertile of the DII and CRP concentrations compared to women with normal weight (AORs 2.40, 95% CIs 1.01–5.71; AORs 24.84, 95% CIs 6.19–99.67, respectively). These findings suggest that women with pre-pregnancy obesity had greater odds of reporting higher DII and having elevated CRP. In conclusion, high pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with increased odds of pro-inflammatory diet and elevated CRP levels during pregnancy in the USA. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary inflammatory index; C-reactive protein; pregnancy body mass index; NHANES; reproductive health dietary inflammatory index; C-reactive protein; pregnancy body mass index; NHANES; reproductive health
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Shin, D.; Hur, J.; Cho, E.-H.; Chung, H.-K.; Shivappa, N.; Wirth, M.D.; Hébert, J.R.; Lee, K.W. Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index Is Associated with Dietary Inflammatory Index and C-Reactive Protein Concentrations during Pregnancy. Nutrients 2017, 9, 351.

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